Research proposal: The participation and involvement of social workers and users’ satisfaction in UK

Research proposal: The participation and involvement of social workers and users’ satisfaction in UK







The study seeks to investigate the participation and involvement of social workers and user satisfaction. Research about users’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction and more general views about the services the social worker offer or would like to will be examined. Research relevant to social work will deal with broad questions for example, the relationship of life chances, health and education with social class, and with access to health and social service provision (Clarke, 2005). It will also address the effectiveness in child and older people protection and in models of community care and acre management. The results of the study would provide an understanding of the financial and social effects on families of caring for children and older people as experienced by users in the United Kingdom.

Research questions or hypotheses

  1. The research will have one research question in mind: are the beneficiaries of social services satisfied with the services offered by the social workers.

Aims and objectives of research proposal

Building understanding of the situation can provide insight on the problem areas and support system needed by social workers and users, the best way for users to meet these needs, and the role of social workers and the community in delivering support. The study will further address and identify particular problems or drawbacks in social work service and practice delivery. For instance, it will examine user participation and involvement in decision-making process plus other areas in connection with social work.



Research Design

The methodological framework of the study will be mixed method combining qualitative and quantitative study. Combining the qualitative and quantitative study ensures thorough data collection on the effects of the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the users of social work and the social workers as well (Kabala, 2005). A qualitative study aims to derive a detailed description of the phenomenon studied. The researcher will take a key role in the data collection process. The outcome is data in the form of words and other descriptive forms. The qualitative study supports the purpose to investigate the problems faced by both social workers and users. It will be expected that some effects will be measurable while other effects might not (Charmaz, 2006). Using the qualitative study ensures that the effects that are not measurable will be collected.

A quantitative study aims to classify, count and use measures to explain the condition or situation being studied. Data collection instruments, which are prepared beforehand, comprise the tools in collecting data (Mandan, 2005). The result is data in the form of numbers and statistical measures. Using quantitative study ensures that the measurable effects of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the users and social workers in The United Kingdom are examined. To align with the mixed method, two data collection methods will be used. One method is qualitative and the other method is quantitative (Camilla, 2003). Using both these methods supports the collection of thorough data on the suitability of the social workers.

Methods of data collection

The quantitative data collection method is survey using a questionnaire. A survey is best used in studies seeking answers for How, when, problems and to what extent. It is also useful in collecting data from a large number of participants. A survey is the appropriate quantitative method for the study because it supports the gathering of data on the measurable effects and it enables the researcher to collect data from 100 respondents.

The survey questionnaire takes about 35 minutes to finish. The questionnaires will be sent prior or in advance to the selected respondents together with a return address and envelope, after contacting them and obtaining their participation in the study. Duration of one week will be allowed for the questionnaire completion. They will be contacted during the mid-week to follow-up on the questionnaire (Clarke, 2005).

The qualitative data collection method will be interview. The interview supports the gathering of responses on all question types, especially on how and why questions. This method is useful in collecting in-depth data. This is the appropriate qualitative data collection method because it enables the researcher to draw the non-measurable effects of user satisfaction or dissatisfaction, descriptions and explanations will also be included (Charmaz, 2006).

The interviews serve as a follow-up on the responses to the survey questionnaire to obtain in-depth accounts. The questions focus on accounts of the level of satisfaction, social relations of social workers and beneficiaries, as well as on areas of need and recommendations in addressing these areas. The interview takes around 40 minutes to complete for each beneficiary. The researcher will make interview notes and asks follow-up questions depending on the answers of the respondents (Munhall, 2007).

Survey Instrument

The data collection instrument is a semi-structured survey questionnaire. It has six sections intended to address the aim and objectives of the study. The first section asks about the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, including income, residence, occupation, and hours worked outside of the home. This section provides information about the characteristics of beneficiaries (Mandan, 2005). The socio-demographic characteristics of families affect the ability to care for social workers, the difficulties that could arise, and the means of addressing these difficulties. The sections are divided further to numerous areas whose data will lead directly or indirectly to answering or fulfilling the research objective (Caldwell, 2003).


The participants of the study are parents, both fathers and mothers, or other users who are not parents. The participants (to fill the questionnaires and to be interviewed) will be selected randomly. After identifying the beneficiaries or families with social workers, 100 participants (50 fathers and 50 mothers) will be selected using stratified random sampling. This method of selection considers criteria in selecting the respondents. The criteria comprise the classification of the respondents and the number of respondents needed to represent each classification (Kabala, 2005). The specific respondents to fill the number required for each classification are selected randomly. Using this sampling method ensures that both fathers and mothers of families from different income classes and those living in urban and rural areas are represented proportionally.

After identifying the required number to ensure representation, the selection of the specific participants representing gender, income classes and urban/rural residence will be randomly selected. Out of the 100 survey participants, 10 fathers and 10 mothers will be selected for interview. Stratified random sampling will also be applied in selecting the interview respondents to ensure representation of parents falling under the different income classes and urban/rural residence (Munhall, 2007). The selected respondents will be contacted to introduce the study, explain the participation needed from them, request their participation, and arrange the sending and return of the questionnaire. The respondents selected for the interview will also be contacted for the interview arrangements (Caldwell, 2003).


Data Analysis

Quantitative data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics to summarize the responses and determine means and standard deviation. T-test and correlation coefficient will be used to determine differences across groups based on income classes and urban/rural residence as well as determine the significance of measurable level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the social workers’ beneficiaries (Kabala, 2005). Qualitative data will be analyzed by using thematic classification and drawing implications relative to the quantitative data and the research questions. Results will be presented in tables and graphs together with textual explanations. From the analysis, the level of beneficiaries’’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction will be determined.

Credibility of the finding

The study takes both qualitative and quantitative approaches to achieve the desired objectives. The qualitative approach will help in the examination of the current demographic factors exploring the various factors that act as drivers to the effectiveness and satisfaction level of the social workers (Jeon, 2004). This method is appropriate because initially the research aims to examine the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the beneficiaries bearing in mind the diverse nature of the contemporary social workers but using a qualitative approach exploring the perceptions that drive the formulation and adoption of the management strategies.

The literature examines original investigations, other literature reviews, peer reviewed academic literature, research databases, reviews, journals in various academic fields and original manuscripts that relate to beneficiary satisfaction (Charmaz, 2006). One of the most recent studies, which directly involved investigation of customer satisfaction of user is the study carried out by SSP (2006). Since a search in the research databases produces a big number of results, the reviewed literature sources are picked on a random- sample strategy (Camilla, 2003).

Research Validity

Internal validity of the research is low as with most field research. A number of factors are likely to impact on the amount and type of collected data. Some of the factors that have been identified to cause an impact on the internal validity of a study include the following. The variety of information collected from various people and sources might contradict. For instance, in one study, the researchers found out that the management had created different environments for the social workers (Jeon, 2004).

Another notable threat to the research validity is the method of selection that might be (though the probability cannot be determined) biased. Since participation in the study by respondents is voluntary, selection bias is likely to affect the internal validity. Instrumentation is also identified by the scholars as another factor that affects internal validity. In this threat, any change or alterations made in the measurement of variables or changes in the techniques of observation may justify changes in the measurement that is ultimately obtained. This is evident from various researches (Camilla, 2003). A good way of dealing with this threat is to ensure consistency of the data analysis method used and techniques applied by the authors.



In conclusion, the research outcomes will be essential in determining the level of user satisfaction concerning the services offered by the social workers. It will also determine the difficulties that the social workers face when carrying out their duties. In general, the research is important for various users as it will assists in the determinati0n of the best management methods.


Caldwell, E., 2003, Research Designs and their applications: Connecticut, USA: Engage


Camilla, M., 2003, Textbook of basic Research Methods. New York, USA: Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 45-56.

Charmaz, K., 2006, Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Clarke, A., 2005, Situational Analysis: Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jeon, Y., 2004, The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism: Sydney, Australia. University of technology.

Kabala, M., 2005, Modern Research Methods and Techniques. New York, USA: Lippincott


Mandan, S., 2005, Branding and Marketing: Modern salons. New York, USA: Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins.

Munhall, L., 2007, Nursing research: a qualitative perspective. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

The Parthenon’s Structural System





The Parthenon’s Structural System

In the year 447 BC, work to build the Parthenon began, as the Athenians wanted their power to be known and felt all over. In the year 432 BC, the work on the unique temple began, and the Parthenon would be a representation of the visible and tangible efflorescence of imperial power held by the Athenians. It means that the Parthenon would represent a building that would not be affected by the depredations of the famous Peloponnesian War. Furthermore, the building would represent the power of the person who was behind its construction, Perikles, an Athenian politician. This paper will seek to give a critical analysis of the structural system of the Parthenon temple.

A number of historians believe that a peace treaty between Persia and Athens was concluded in the year 449 BC. This is exactly two years before the construction of the Parthenon began. The importance of the peace treaty was that the Athenian Empire/Delian League would continue with its existence even if a valid reason for this existence no longer existed. Therefore, Athens would become the leader of the entire Greek defense league as well as the master of all the other states in Greece. Athenians made the decision in 454 BC to ensure that the League treasury was situated at Delos, an acropolis, as opposed to the former location at the Pan-Hellenic sanctuary. The money provided by the League funded the Parthenon and the building marked the imperialism being portrayed by the Athenians. The Greeks had their own idealized way in which they lived and the paid attention to all the details. They had a deep understanding for mathematical harmony existing in the natural world (Neils 28).

The Parthenon is a unique Doric peripheral temple and this means that it had a plan with a rectangular floor. Furthermore, a number of series of steps that lay quite low on all sides existed. A (8 by 17) colonnade of Doric columns extended to entire structure’s periphery. On all the entrances to the temple, there were an additional six columns, which were situated in its front. The larger of the two rooms found in the interior known as the naos were cult statue’s house. The Athenians used the other smaller room known as the opisthodomos for their treasury matters. The Parthenon was built in order to replace two other temples that existed earlier on the Acropolis of Athena. There are quite a few traces of one of the temples up-to-date, as it stood between the Erechttheum and the Parthenon. The other temple that was built was under construction at the time when the Persians were building their sack and this was in 480 BC (Woodford, 55).

The Greek used the types of columns mainly when building their public buildings and temples. These were the Corinthian, Ionic and Doric, which were extremely popular at the time the Parthenon was being built. The proportions were the ones that distinguished the three orders in the most basic and truest forms. The Parthenon used the elements found in the Ionic and Doric orders. This means that in a temple that has a Doric peripteral element, there will be a continuous sculpted frieze, which is continuous and has been borrowed from an order that is Ionic. In addition, it uses other four Ionic columns that support the roof at a point known as the opisthodomos (Woodford, 55).

There is a frieze found in the Parthenon and it runs all-round the temple’s wall upper edge. Its size is quite small as it is 5 inches and 3 feet tall and the placement ensures that it is not easy to view the temple well from the ground. In addition, in the inside of the structure, there are metopes and triglyphs. There is a single subject in the four sides that the frieze holds, as it has been witnessed. On the three sides, which are south, west, and north, there is a depiction of a procession of sacrificial animals, musicians, and horsemen, among other figures, all taking part in some rituals (Neils 52).

The temple does not have straight lines that are absolute, but they seek to bestow its organic character, which is subtle. This proves that the Parthenon temple has a structure that is geometric. Its columns have a peristyle taper with a slight arc when it reaches the building’s top part to provide a unique impression. It shows that from the entasis (tension), it appears to be swollen in manner to represent the burden of the roof’s weight. This subtle feature seeks to alloy the anthropomorphic metaphors to represent the other inanimate object in the temple. The columns, which are peristyle, are more than ten meters high, and they slightly incline to the building’s center at about 7 cm. The platform that houses the columns has an arc that is gentle and ensures that its corners are 12cm to the ground as compared to the middle (Mommsen 545).

It is evident that the Parthenon’s architects had a lot of knowledge on visual illusion. This is attributed to the fact that they had many years of experience in observing the natural world as well as architectural refinement. The columns were designed to appear at the corners of the temple and have a large diameter as compared to the other columns. In addition, the space around the columns would be smaller than the others by around 25 cm. This was to ensure that the slight adaptation of the columns found in the corner would be set out against the sky’s brightness. In turn, the columns would appear to be thinner than their actual dimensions and a little bit apart from the columns found in the dark areas of the building’s wall. The decrease and increase in space and size respectively, would therefore compensate for an illusion that would be caused by a bright background (Mommsen 550).


Out of all the other Greek temples ever built, the Parthenon is set apart because of its subtle features as well as its overall effect. This is seen as a departure from the past Doric structures to dynamic architectural expressions. The intricate refinements of the temple prove that the even people of this time would be challenged. The Parthenon represented a lintel and post temple that had no engineering breakthroughs during its construction. However, it should be noted that it had stylist conventions that have in the modern world become Classical architecture paradigms. Even after it was built, many other buildings were inspired by its architecture. Therefore, the Athenians should be highly regarded for their expertise in coming up with unique architectural designs.

Works Cited

Woodford, S. The Parthenon. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. 1981. Print.

Neils, Jenifer. The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

Mommsen, Theodor. The Venetians in Athens and the Destruction of the Parthenon in 1687, American Journal of Archaeology, 45, 4 (1941): 544–556.

The Parapsychology Of God

The Parapsychology Of God

The moment science started gaining roots in the world, spirituality and religion became threatened. The conflict among religion and science has several fronts. For instance, the revolution of corpenican was able to bring out limitations on Biblical geology. An effect on this was to bring down the Christian conceit when it comes to earth centeredness. Later on, the philosophers came to conclude that the mind of human beings was just an epiphenomenon, something to do with autonomy and not of substance (Kennedy, 2002). This therefore explains the immortality prospects. This led to the criticism of the Bible by the scientists such as the Renaissance scholars who included Montesquieu, Voltaire and others who created a lot of mischief through the invention of the comparative religion that started to shake the church dogma.

However, even after all these advances in the scholarship and modern science, the spiritual quest as well as religious believe have continued to be alive and moving on well. The interests in spiritual and religious matters are even stronger. One of the greatest and respected commandments is to love ourselves, God and our neighbors. We are entitled to follow this as a moral obligation (Ford, 2008).

The sixth sense in human beings offers an experimental foundation when it comes to spirituality which is based on the world’s transformed experience instead of the inherited laws. The psychic ability could be the starting point for another approach in spirituality.  Research articles on the relationship between parapsychology and spirituality have been written by several authors (Brier and Giles, 2009). This deal with the history that accounts on the way God was able to rage war on the religion stability in relation to our conceptions in religion through infiltrating the imagination we possess with new impulses and imaginations. The psychic ability for a long time is a main protagonist especially in the thoughts of religion.  The imagination on spirituality becomes energized by the sensibility of psychic which is prosecuted by people maintaining the status quo.

The initial human spiritual experience is confided by priests with the ability to modify their follower’s minds instead of enabling them possess same experiences (Tart, 2004).  The followers are involved in quoting the scriptures instead of maintaining the mentioned love. They always refer to principles in Jungian instead of meditating on their dreams. God is involved in challenging what is referred to as status quo in psychic imagination.

The truth of psychic imagination is applied in death survival. For instance, the taste of after life is obtained through dreams as that is the time subconscious mind changes to conscious one after death. The Eleusian mystery in Ancient Greeks had transformative rituals which they lifted veil on the imagination role of transcending death (Gill, 2006).

This therefore means that parapsychology is a research area in which through the process of breaking the barrier of materialism together with validation of the transcendent reality, the quest for human spirituality is possible through grounding it as a dimension of the main experience. In the parapsychology light, people involved in the quest are not supposed to shuffle in the embarrassment regarding the basic hopes and claims. This means that the spirituality notion should not imply the neurotic clutching intellectual cowardice or retrograde thinking. If the parapsychology is in deed right, it is therefore the scientific materialists involved in laboring through illusions and who deny the necessary dimensions in human experience.

The reason as to why I chose this chapter is to show how development of science has made it possible for man to do a lot of research on human spirituality. Human beings have a sixth sense that makes them to live a life full of transformed experiences and not abiding on the inherited laws. However, the chapter is able to demonstrate the fact that even after all the advances in modern science, the religious believe has continued to remain strong and this is very important us.

I chose this chapter to be able to expand knowledge on the aspects of someone being spiritual or religious and why people should be in one of these. Students in college are prone to adventures in the quest of seeking for the best thing in life. People with high level of intelligence do not believe in God. They tend to reason more and comprehend many ideas from experience. The study of parapsychology enables the students is able to choose the right path to follow which is seeking God first. It is evident that even scientists later identify with God after doing all the experiments. As a student, the chapter is in deed relevant. This is because the studies explain life on earth and even after death.

Some times it becomes difficult to cope with the spiritual and religious forms of life. This shatters the spirituality of people psychologically, physically and socially. Many people have been challenged by the understanding living a spiritual life and what God Himself planned for us. This leads to the scientists trying to explain some theories such as the mind of human beings which they conclude that it was just an epiphenomenon, something to do with autonomy and not of substance (Kennedy, 2002). This leads to the immortality prospects. The study of this chapter enables one to understand science and God in a much better way.


Brier, B., & Giles, J. (2009). Philosophy, Psychical Research and Parapsychology. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 13(3), 393-405.

Gill, D. (2006). Mapping the Cosmos: An Introduction to God [Book Review]. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 6(2), 199.

Ford, M. (2008). Parapsychology, Philosophy and Spirituality. Process Studies, 26(1/2), 163-167.

Kennedy, J. (2002). Commentary on” experiments on distant intercessory prayer” in archives of internal medicine. JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY, 66(2), 177-182.

Tart, C. T. (2004). On the scientific foundations of transpersonal psychology: contributions from parapsychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 36(1), 66-90.

Why more is less

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Why more is less

The paradox of choice is a theory used to highlight the consequences of having to choose from a variety of options on a consumer. This theory explains that, when provided with too many options consumers are less likely to derive satisfaction from the purchase.  Customers tend to derive satisfaction through the feeling of having made the best choice (Barry 15). However, when provided with too many options they tend to be overwhelmed and making a choice becomes harder. This theory is however not generalized as it does not apply to all situations.

Unless it is a case of impulse buying, customers often have a premeditated choice of the item they require. The option of different brands is provided by the selling party. At this point  the customer gets to make up their mind on what brand to pick. This is thought to be the occurrence in a situation that the consumer has no specific brand that he is used to picking (Barry 33). A wider variety of brands will definitely make it hard to pick a specific brand. This will require the customer to try and find out more about each commodity and in the end might still be doubtful about the choice he makes.

The application of this theory generally depends on the type of buyer the customer is. In relation to this theory, the type of customer will depend on whether they are ‘maximizers’ or ‘satisficers’. ‘Maximizers’ are those who tend to want to know everything about the brand they are to pick and will want to make the best option(Barry 17). These are more likely to be affected by a wider a variety of items to choose from. ‘Satisficers’ on the other hand are those who tend to be satisfied with whichever choice they make. These were found, according to research, to be unaffected by a wide variety of options to choose from.

For you to ensure that consumers acquire the most satisfaction from their purchase, the theory of the paradox of choice tends to explain that it is appropriate to make it easier for the customer to choose from. It, however, does not throw to wind the aspect of diversity (Barry 12). It is necessary to make sure that you give just enough variety to ensure that customers get exactly what they are looking for. On the other hand the options should not be too much thus causing them to take much time making a choice on what to buy.

In relation to this theory, the difficulty in choice can be solved through paricular strategies.  These strategies however must be chosen carefully depending on the customer’s ability to handle the psychological complications that tend to accompany the strategy put in place. The customers could learn to be more satisfied with their choices (Barry 7). This will help to enable them be more satisfied  with each purchase they make no matter the number of options they had to choose from. One can also come up with rules to govern their purchase patterns. This will help determine the cause of action in such situations as the one described earlier.

There a variety of strategies both the customer and the selling party to ensure that the paradox of choice is solved can put that in place. It is necessary to understand that most consumers are different and as thus the approaches can vary. On the other hand enterprises can be handling different merchandise and as thus difference in strategy kicks in.

Works Cited

Schwartz, Barry. The paradox of choice: why more is less. New York: Ecco, 2004. Print.

The author of Kindred uses “the parable of the sower” to explain how the slavery of the Africans-



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The author of Kindred uses “the parable of the sower” to explain how the slavery of the Africans-Americans came about in the plantations during the colonial period, and how slavery has impacted the relationship between the native Americans and the African-American in the modern lifestyles. There is still racial discrimination in America, where the black communities have fewer privileges compared to the whites and are subject to social, cultural and political insubordinations (Hampton 99).  Dana and Rufus bring out the theme of violence and collective history is in the novel ‘Kindred’ by Octavia Butler. Dana is a black lady who marries a white man and they face contempt from the whites. She struggles against violence of the white community and the tight relationship she has with the Rufus’ family. She perceives herself as being lesser than the whites, and a victim of blame under the ruling class. In one of the encounters with Rufus, she is an object of pleasure as Rufus attempts to sleep with her. Luckily, she escapes. In addition, the collective history of slavery still lives among the black community at the present time. Rufus perpetrates violence to his slaves and even to Dana. He portrays collective dominance of the white community through beating up slaves, selling them and referring them as “niggers” (Butler, 36).  Racism is a label for individuals who view the white color to be superior to the black color in mental innovation and creativity, but does not apply to the whole group (Scheurich, 121). The paper discusses the theme of violence and collective history in reference to characters Dana and Rufus.

Violence refers to the intentional use of extreme insults or provocations, against another person and is intended to gain control (Ray, 6). The quote ‘nigger’ has been widely used by the white men when punishing and giving authority to the black community. Dana is a protagonist in the novel and she faces a lot of violence that emanates from the white community since she is African-American. The theme of violence is evident among the white rulers who oppress the black slaves working on their farms. For example, in an attempt to save a small red-haired boy drowning near a river- Rufus, his mother screams at Dana and when the father arrives, he points a gun to terrify her. Rufus points the blame to Dana since she is black (Butler 14). The river is symbolic of the beginning of the predicament that befalls Dana. The river introduces to the reader the first act of violence that is waged on Dana by the white man after she saves Rufus, after drowning in the river. The author uses the technique of tone variation among the white community to express the contempt they had for the black community. In an angry tone, the man refers to Dana as the ‘devil’ as he points the long barrel gun at her (Butler 6). The author advances the plot in the novel by use of the style of flashback. Dana flashbacks to 1815 in Maryland, where the white men try to rape her when she comes out of her hiding place to help Alice’s mother. The white oppressors called the black slaves as ‘niggers,’ identified by Butler, (41), when one of the white men comes to their house and calls Dana as a maiden nigger, to symbolize her being color and as a slave to her master’s- the whites. Rufus admits that his mother calls black people niggers and he is compliant to the term for the whites perceived that the blacks should be the oppressed (Butler, 25). In another flashback when Dana recounts how she met with her husband Kelvin, who is white, the coworkers view the relationship to be awkward for a black woman was not to marry to the colonial masters. They perceived Dana’s relationship with Kelvin to be provoking the order of the power relationship between the servants and the masters. However, Dana’s marriage is successful since they endure slavery as part of their life from the menial paying job they were doing (Butler 52). Rufus portrays an act of violence when he attempts to rape a black woman-Alice; a culture that was encouraged by the white community to manifest their power of oppression (Butler, 117). Rufus, when defending himself, uses a command tone that he ‘wants’ Alice and her husband to be sold way to avoid further confrontations.

Rufus supports senior white men to be using a condescending word against the blacks when he says, ‘why not call black people niggers’ (Butler, 25). The white master of the plantation raises Rufus showing no appreciation for the black people. Rufus sells Sam, a slave working in the plantation as a punishment for flirting with Dana and hits Dana when she tries to intervene. Rufus oppresses Dana and the other workers by making sure they did not interact. Despite having a black concubine, and bearing four children with her and Rufus forcefully wants to sleep with Dana (Butler, 236). The author uses the style of flashback to teleport Dana back to her home with her husband after spending eight months in the plantation. The flashback to the plantation represents the end of oppression and prejudice against the blacks. Dana uses the guilt in Rufus to free Alice children after she hangs herself with a rope. The rope symbolizes freedom from oppression and Rufus dies in his house after it catches fire (Butler, 239).

Collective history is used in the Kindred novel to refer a pool of information shared held by members of a certain group. The white men used derogative terms such as ‘the devil’ to refer to the black community and the culture originated from the white community during the colonial period.  African-Americans share the concept through the ancestral generations in America from the slavery period, and the memory has acquired through historical consciousness and education (Fulton, Minor, 2). In spite of the social discrimination of the whites against the black community, Dana suspects Rufus share the same collective history when he mentions Weylin.  As a result, she assisted in freeing black slaves at Alice Greenwood home (Butler, 28). The whites perceived Dana and the black community as not human, but slaves. Furthermore, the blacks collectively saw themselves as being lesser than their superior and the theme manifests itself when Dana surprises them by marrying a white man (Butler, 50). Rufus and the white community identified themselves as having superior qualities compared to the blacks’ skin, which they perceived it symbolized the dirt. For instance, even after Dana had put out the fire, Rufus persistently called her by the name nigger because of her black skin (Butler, 25). The white masters collectively used command tones to oppress the black and make them do whatever they wanted. As cited by Butler, (36), one of the white men riding horses raped a black woman in the bush with disregard for their violent tones he was using words as ‘shut your mouth.’ In addition, they viciously whipped a black man who found in the cabin slaves. The whipping of a slave was a collective behavior of the white colonials to intimidate and pass command to the slaves. Those slaves who disobeyed their masters, they were mauled and fed to the dogs. They worked for long hours in the plantation farms, and their meal was only food scraps. The whites propagated collective behavior of colonialism in a number of ways. Rufus, for example, mistreated his servant, and he could sell those who disappointed them. Rufus and the other white man practiced a culture of buying and selling slaves; however they wanted, and whenever they wished. Rufus sold some of his slaves, including his concubine just because he admired Dana, who was taking care of his ailing mother (Butler, 263). The author uses the flashback style to travel Dana back in time after the brutal experience in the plantation. Dana brings out the theme of collective history in the present American lifestyle on a newspaper that explains what happened to the slaves and the Rufus death. She endures pain that traces back to the collective history of Africa- American slavery from the colonial period (Butler, 264).

In sum, racial discrimination is evident through the use of violence. Dana calls out her name and says, ‘I am free woman’, to symbolize the liberation of the black people from the chains of colonial discrimination. The American culture continues to struggle with racial discrimination, which is a huge social problem. Butler’s novel has captured the social, racial discrimination of the blacks by the whites very well. The themes of violence and collective history are evident throughout the novel. The characters Rufus and Dana have been used very well by the author to bring out these themes. The author has succeeded in portraying the dark side of the then American society.

Works cited

Butler, Octavia. Kindred. Boston: Beacon Press. 2004. Print.

Fulton, DoVeanna S and DoVeanna S. Fulton Minor. Speaking Power: Black Feminist Orality in

Women’s Narratives of Slavery. New York, NY: SUNY Press, 2012. Print.

Hampton, Gregory Jerome. Changing Bodies in the Fiction of Octavia Butler: Slaves, Aliens,

and Vampires. Forbes Boulevard: Lexington Books, 2010. Print.

Ray, Larry. Violence and Society. Oliver’s Yard: Sage. 2011. Print.

Scheurich, James. Research Method in the Postmodern. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. Print.

The Parable of the Sower: Exploring Estrangement from Literacy

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The Parable of the Sower: Exploring Estrangement from Literacy

Research Questions

Research questions are always the underlying factors for the creation of a good project proposal (White 33). They provide the guidance through which a researcher should be working and as such act as the foundation for every research. Meeting the objectives requires that an individual answers all the research questions succinctly and with discretion. In this case, the research questions would be vital as they line out the factors that have led to estrangement in the Octavia’s The Parable of the Sower. They act as the windows to the hidden estrangement that would otherwise require significant literary appreciations to explain. The research questions also accord the readers/target audience the opportunity to ponder and engage their literary knowledge into trying to predict the research pattern.

They are hence brief statements that seek the opinion of the reader and clarity of the researcher in pointing out literacy as a significant factor to estrangement in the novel. To the audience, the questions should project the research ideas as proposals that are subject to discerning or even conception if convinced otherwise by the development of the research. The research questions, on the other hand, are purpose statements that should be met by the writer as they challenge his thinking and development of the entire research. In a sense, the questions ensure that there are no loopholes in the research.

In this research, they are used to create a pattern and path that should be followed by the writer to clarify that illiteracy can be significantly factored as estrangement. Most of the characters in the novel are illiterate individuals who are committed to participating in atrocities and other cruel events. Significantly, they wouldn’t need education to take part in the conducts. However, it is the norm that more violent behaviors are associated with illiteracy. Right from the onset of the novel, the characters are estranged from literacy, a factor that throws them even further into the abyss of confusion as they commit to perpetrating crimes.

Estrangement from literacy is an important argument as it exploits other factors that have not been explored by other literary scholars. It provides the insight that people can be separated from many things as well including emotions and the abstract, and as such clarifies that estrangement is not limited to humans and other physical aspects alone. The perception creates a new dimension of literary appreciation as it drives it beyond the ordinary and creates an argument that is hidden and had to reach and in its way, a literary abstract. It is in a manner spurs a reader into action to consider all dimensions of literacy appreciation and not limit reasoning to ordinary factors (White, 33).

Project Completion

Developing and completing the research would require the selection of literary scholars who are well versed with information about the Parable of the Sower as participants. The group of participants who should conduct an adequate appreciation of a subject would then be presented with questionnaires that examine their perception on illiteracy in the project (Friesen, 49). Through the questionnaires, the difference between a story muddled with illiterate characters and a story free of such is exploited. The assumptions made from the information collected from the questionnaires would then be supported using literary articles that claim the same. Using an enormous population of participants would ensure that the information and ideologies collected is varied and adequate as there is a high likelihood of the participants having different ideas (Friesen, 49).

Information discredited would include those presented by participants who admit in the questionnaires that their knowledge about the novel is inadequate. The questions presented in the questionnaires will be closed-ended to limit the contribution to matters that are significant to the illiteracy/literacy factors in the novel. Contrasting ideas will be taken into consideration to examine the loopholes that might render the research project insignificant. The use of a questionnaire would not be significant as the topic in discussion would not prompt the participants to lie.

Literature Review

More of the critical analysis if the novel has been done by authors who are accredited with writing for some of the well-known literature journals. Such authors would provide a significant contribution to the research as they have endeavored to explore and analyze the story. For instance, Melzer, explores the significance of the utopian world and how Butler has embraced it to develop her novel (1). Addressing the utopian factors, Melzer examines the abstract issues in literature. Brown and Thomasania, also explain the important matters that readers should take note of in the novel (1). In the process, they also make the revelation of the significance of illiteracy in the story.

Other sources would be credible websites that air articles that have been authored by individuals with literary intellect. Kannan explores that persons who have embraced education and were literate are the effectors of salvation (1). They act as the solvers to the problems that plague the gated community. The authors jointly point to Lauren’s role in educating her group of friends. In a sense, they attribute Lauren’s leadership qualities to her education and imply that the most other community members have estranged themselves from education/literacy. The manner in which the authors have explored the story significantly points to the Octavia’s exploration of illiteracy to equip her story with taste and thrill.


The project is an educative undertaking that aspires to clarify and project some of the underlying literary facts in the Parable of the Sower. Reason for conducting it in large scale is to ensure that the information presented is comprehensive and that there is a broad basis of the argument. Sampling of populations to come up with an appropriate group of participants that would help with proving the argument requires funding. As such, the proposal is targeted to Dr. Kate Boyd, who is the literature professor. The professor would then review it and present it to the school board for funding approval.

Writing Format

The proposal will be a formal undertaking and as such would follow a formal format. As such, there would be an executive summary that summarizes the project and the projects the plot of the entire project (Miner, Jeremy and Lynn 41). Subsequently, there would be the introductory part that provides the insight into the entire proposal. The methodology part would explore the designs that are intended for conducting the project and collecting information. Literature review would be the next part and would explore the authors that have made similar or related contributions in the same field. The last parts would examine the expected results from the project.

Works Cited

Melzer, Patricia. ““All That You Touch You Change: Utopian Desire and the Concept of Change            in Octavia Butler’s Parable of the Sower and Parable of the Talents”.” Femspec 3.2   (2012). Femspec. Femspec. Web. <>.

Brown, Re Gena, and Thomasania Craft. “Teaching African American Literature | Octavia           Butler.” Teaching African American Literature | Octavia Butler. ASCD, 6 May 2009.         Web. 3 Mar. 2015. <>.

Friesen, Bruce K. Designing and Conducting Your First Interview Project. San Francisco:            Jossey-Bass, 2010. Internet resource.

Kannan, Ashley. “How Did Illiteracy Effect the Gated Community and Everyone Else outside of             the Walls? Did Illiteracy Make the People… – Homework Help –”  , 24 Nov. 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.      <       everyone-464485>.

Miner, Jeremy T, and Lynn E. Miner. Models of Proposal Planning & Writing. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2005. Print.

White, Patrick. Developing Research Questions: A Guide for Social Scientists. Basingstoke          [England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.

Cognitive Estrangement in the Parable of the Sower


Non-realist writers have used science to provide a taste for their works as they endeavor to explore a sophisticated realm of writing. The ability to conjure fictitious events that also contradict the perceptions already be held in the present world requires great art and mastery of the terrain of literature. Such is the mastery that has been exhibited by Octavia Butler in her Parable of the Sower as she aspires to explore cognitive estrangement alongside other themes in literature. The novel has been written with such knacks and enthusiasm that make it easy to embrace even the factors that are divorced from normal conceptions as normalcy.

In the novel, Nova has been set up to project the possibilities of the future by exploiting the weaknesses of the present. With characters developed around actions that are considered as abnormal, the Parable of the Sower seeks to necessitate the significance of the factors that have been labeled as ‘sick’ in the normal world. Cognitive estrangement has come out as a vital thematic tool that even clarifies the difference between the good that should be considered as normal, and the psychopath actions that require counseling. In the novel, as in the realistic world, Octavia uses nova to contradict beliefs and set new trends that significantly recreate the pattern of beliefs.

Such kind of literary developments often spur scholars to critical thinking as they aspire to evaluate the developments in the plot. As such, non-realist writers, through their authored material, oversee the marriage between literary appreciation and critical. That is because to decipher the content and morals of the non-realistic fiction requires more than meets the eye as such are easy to pick out. Critical thinking is very important as it enables the appreciation that examines even the abstract content of a material of literature, and the presentation of the fewer obvious facts. The Parable of the Sower has not been left behind in this aspect as it is muddled with theories that explain human interactions and behavior.

This research paper endeavors to critically explore Octavia’s novel and unearth the science behind the literature. It will also elaborate the relationship of scientific matters projected as Nova, and the normal human behavior. The research paper considers all the contradictions between the normal world and the scientific world that have been forecasted in the novel. The cognitive estrangement factors and the supporting evidence have been explored and elaborated. In a sense, this research paper explores the interesting factors in the novel and provides the insight for an in-depth analysis of the plot and its development. The paper aspires to act as the bridge between the ordinary and the exemplary in the novel.

Cognitive Estrangement

On one hand, to be estranged is to be divorced from or to possess an idea that does not have the likelihood to be interrelated as what is considered normalcy (James 118). Cognitive, on the other hand, is very much an interpretation of perception that may be held by a writer or an author. Cognitive Estrangement implies the creation of a perception that contradicts empirical reality by an author (Wald 1908). However, such ideas are always only divorced from the moment but oft appear as applicable in the future. In a sense, cognitive estrangement is the projection of a scientifically conceivable idea but one that is yet too far to be considered reality by an author’s targeted audience. Literary articles that bear such kind of features inspire the readers to think beyond the ordinary to comprehend the factors that make up the story (Wald 1909).

Non-realist Literature and Critical Thinking

Realistic and non-realistic literature could be both aimed at delivering a moral lesson. However, the realistic fiction literature uses more ordinary tools to meet its objective (Hongladarom 1). As such, the morality of realistic literature is oft obvious for all to see. In contrast, non-realistic fiction capitalizes on the more technical tools like cognitive estrangement to deliver its morals. As such, the morals are never easy to decipher and require a keen critical appreciation to reveal the developments of the plot. Such appreciation is inspired by well-channeled thought, a factor commonly referred to as critical thinking as a reader engages all his mental capacity to explore all the factors that develop into the story morals.

Cognitive Estrangement requires the ability to comprehend the complex nature of the non-realist literature, and relate them to the daily odds of normalcy (James 118). The factor of critical thinking is nurtured and is like channeled energy. As such, constantly engaging the mental capacity in non-realist literature improves the ability to think critically/see beyond the ordinary. Moreover, profiling characters become quite of a challenge as the activities in which they engage also not ordinary. Realistic fiction does not present the readers that such kind of challenge, as the information contained, are easy to pick out and explain (Hongladarom 1). They also handle matters that are experienced in daily lifestyle and as such are easy to comprehend.


Hyper empathy syndrome is used in the novel as a Novum. The state of mental disorder has been explored by Octavia to mold and characterize the main character, Lauren, who suffers from the syndrome. In page 115, Lauren restates her problem and clarifies that it can do good, a factor that she had not given consideration until that time. The syndrome is used to build the sharing community (Chow 10). Hyper empathy is also used as a window that provides the insight into human behavior. For instance, after her brother’s murder, Lauren sets to thinking how individuals with any empathetic feelings could commit to conducting such ‘sins’. She states that some of the wounds that her brother’s corpse bears, depict extreme hate that had been emanated on her brother (Butler 113).

Hyper empathy clarifies the difference between the sharers community and the non-sharers. The questioning of Lauren’s identity as a sharer by Harry also project the other significance of hyper empathy as Lauren is forced to lauding her identity as a sharer. The denunciation of Christianity by Lauren as she adopted Earthseed was influenced by her analysis of occurrences around her, factored by the religious Christians. In a sense, hyper empathy drove her to comprehending the situation and filled her with the urge to make the difference. Hyper empathy not only defines Lauren’s character, but the entire novel plot as the factions that result are influenced by their ability to comprehend and share feelings.

Why Hyper empathy is Cognitively Estranging

Empathy and sympathy are emotional connections that humans develop as they comprehend the problems, suffering and troubles that are experienced by others. To feel sorry for another human and to want to help is considered as psychologically normal as failure to feel any connection is a psychological disorder (James 118). Hyper empathy is an upgrade of empathy and is considered a mental disorder. People suffering from the syndrome always consider the troubles and suffering experienced by others above their own (Fenton 1). Hyper empathy is exhibited through selfless situations and the inability to recognize and choose the most significant factors that should include one’s security and health.

Scientifically, the mirror neurons and the amygdala part of the brains play the most significant roles in human emotional connection and interpretation (Fenton 1). A mental disorder would involve a situation in which not just the two cell types are responsible for the emotional connection. Other brain parts can also take to sharing the responsibility with these cells thus magnifying the emotional connection that hyper empathetic people have. As such, when they fail to assist other individuals, they suffer immense emotional breakdown. Hyper empathetic individuals are hence more prone to subjecting themselves to dangerous situations or going to the extreme to assist other individuals (Conyers 106).

Considering that the situation has been labeled a syndrome/mental disorder in the normal world of today, the patients are always subjecting to mental therapy (Fenton 1). The therapy and counseling are aimed at restoring some bit of sense into their feelings. However, Butler’s Parable of the Sower does the exact opposite as it hails hyper empathy as a positive attribute (Melzer 1). Contradicting normalcy is not the only factor that has been taken into account by the author as she goes to the extremes of clarifying that hyper empathy is the difference between the good and bad. The syndrome makes the underlining contribution to the novel and defines the sharers who believe in the Earthseed (Sharp 302).

Lauren, who is the hyper empathetic character, is used by the author to provide an insight into the true characters of individuals. She is portrayed as the character who has had the revelation into the behaviors of people, a factor that even results in her leaving Christianity for Earthseed (Chow 10). Hyper empathy drives Lauren to leadership as she aspires to help her people. Considering that in the current situations Lauren would be subjected to mental therapy and counseling, the fact that her situation is used as a strength by the writer makes it a Novum. That is because it is a bit of science that explains what might be considered as normal in the future and tells the difference between the bad and good in morals (Melzer 1).

Norm Interrupted by the Estrangement

The norm that has been interrupted by the Novum is the classification of hyper empathy as a mental disorder by scientists and medical expertise (Meireless 376). In the normal world, any hyper empathic individual would be subjected to mental therapy and counseling to make them realize the significance of reducing their emotional evaluation of situations. To some extent, even scientific therapy that involves exercising of the neuron cells involved would be recommended just so to restore the ‘normal’ empathetic/sympathetic situations. These factors are considered because hyper empathetic individuals have been labeled a danger to themselves as they will often try to solve other problems before solving their own (Conyers 106). For instance, a hyper empathetic individual might get into a building engulfed in an inferno in an attempt to save other people.

In normal situations, hyper empathetic individuals would be convinced that their development is not a virtue, but a vice that should be toned down (Meireless 376). However, in the novel, Lauren is convinced that her syndrome is a strength that can used to explore various situations and strengthen the community. As she aspires to solve people’s problems, she assumes the role of a leader who provides solutions to complications in the novel (Chow 4). One-time she states that she had never known that her condition could be as useful as it proved to be. In fact, she even wonders why some individuals have no emotion after her brother’s murder. During the time when she is mourning her brother, she equates the murder to hate and hyper empathy to love and sounds very right in every sense (Sharp 303).

Hyper empathy has also been used to interrupt the conception that no man is incapable of committing evil. Lauren is depicted as the character who understands people’s suffering to the extremes and has no drive to perpetrate any violent activity. Even after her parents have been killed in the gated community, she does not engage in a revenge mission but rather decides to track a safe haven along with another survivor. Even when she experiences hate emanated toward, she responds in a calm manner. In this sense, the Novum is used to contradict the odds that depict man as a vengeful animal who aspires to get even on the account of a loss. It is normalcy for people to make rational decisions as they seek to get back at others for retaliatory attacks. The contradictions made by the Novum are significant and contribute toward making the novel uniques.


Cognitive estrangement can be used to elevate a style of writing and explore factors beyond the ordinary. The thematic expression of the factor in the Parable of the Sower equips the story with fictitious fluidity that makes it an interesting novel to appreciate critically. Through cognitive estrangement, writers often explore factors that should bear relevance to the society, or factors that will bear relevance in the future and yet have been discredited in the present. Cognitive Estrangement is oft projected through science fiction and presents scientific researchers with pondering questions for research. In a sense, they not only present literary scholars with challenges that critical thinking to solve, but also present scientists as well with challenges to solve.

Also, the factors of estrangement in the novel have presented contradictions to the perceptions be held by the scientific world. Using hyper empathy as a Novum, Octavia has explored the factors derail human relations and how weaknesses can be exploited to yield positive results. That is expressed through Lauren, who is suffering from hyper empathy yet uses her condition to help her people. Such non-realist fictitious writing inspires critical thinking as analysis requires a keen ability to comprehend the factors in the story. Stories inspired by science fiction explore writing to realms that illuminate literature and make it challenging, thus interesting.

Works Cited

Butler, Octavia. Parable of the Sower. NewYork: Warner, 2000. Print.

Chow, Stephanie. “Coping With Dfference: Social Identity and Meditating Intergroup Conflict in             Octavia E. Butler’s Science Fiction Novelsr.” Explorations: The UC Davis             Undergraduate Research Journal 14 (2011): 1-17. Print.

Conyers, James L. Race, Gender, and Identity: A Social Science Comparative Analysis of             Africana Culture. , 2013. Print.

Fenton, Dana. “Exploring Hyper Empathy Syndrome.” How Is Hyper Empathy Syndrome             Diagnosed? · Emotional & Stress Management Articles., 19 Nov.      2014. Web. 4 Mar. 2015. <        syndrome-diagnosed-a4203.html>.

Hongladarom, Soraj. “Critical Thinking and the Realism/Anti-realism Debate.” Critical Thinking            and the Realism/Anti-realism Debate. Chulalongkorn University, 19 Jan. 2000. Web. 4            Mar. 2015. <>.

James, Edward. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.      Press, 2004. Print.

Meireless, Alexander. “War of the Worlds: Post Colonial Identities in Afro American       Speculative Action.” Uberlandia-MG 26.2 (2010): 369-88. Print.

Melzer, Patricia. ““All That You Touch You Change: Utopian Desire and the Concept of Change            in Octavia Butler’s Parable of the Sower and Parable of the Talents”.” Femspec 3.2   (2012). Femspec. Femspec. Web. <>.

Sharp, Michael D. Popular Contemporary Writers. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference,    2005. Print.

Wald, Priscilla. “Cognitive Estrangement, Science Fiction, and Medical Ethics.” The Lancet 371 (2008): 1908-1909. Print.



















The paper deals with sociological aspects of crime and its general impacts in society. `Definition of crime according to sociology and its effects in society is discussed in general. There are several sociological concepts of crime and criminal behavior and deviance is presented in society. Concepts of crime are sociologically discussed in depth from functionalism, conflict, interactions, feminism and the postmodern models perspectives.

  1. Specific hypothesis

In order to do this, specific hypotheses and guidelines must be sought and addressed. These are assumptions made to ascertain certain causes and relations of crime and society. Trends in crime rates and occurrences are also sought to be established. Why are there more prevalent criminal gangs in towns and leading urban areas than in other areas? Why are criminal gangs concentrated in slums and other areas as compared to other areas? Other trends also seek to establish why crimes are committed at night than during daytime.  Sociological crime hypotheses seek to establish all this. These hypotheses must be searched and tested to complete thesis. The independent and dependent variable must be established in order interlink the connection between the research study and a concise understanding of the issue.

  1. Applicable sociological concepts

Sociological concepts of crime indicate the essence of using theories to enhance the research project. The theory of conflict is much advanced, and it will be used in this case. Conflict in society leads to crimes and prevalent crime rates. In order to pre-exist harmoniously, the society has rules and standards that need to be followed. Deviation from the set out norms and rules leads to crime and deviance. In many urban areas, particularly slums there tends to be a consistent trend due to lack of proper law and order. Crimes vary from society to society. The society and its existing laws define a crime. All crimes are regulated and punishable by law.

Crime and conflict in society arises from the justice and the inequality point of view. Whenever there is, a system of social and wealth inequality in society there arises the conflict that can only be suppressed through criminal acts. Majority of the crimes in society arises because of economic problems. Whenever there is a conflict in the scramble of resources and means of production, the aggrieved party tries to settle the conflict through crimes. Conflicts occur because of dissatisfaction with class, age, gender, ethnicity and geographical locations.

  1. Practical implications of crime

Crimes and criminal acts have many negative implications to the individual criminal, the public and the society in general. In most societies poverty ranks as the leading cause of crime in general. Changes in societal norms and practices may also create conflict hence escalating crime rates in society.

  1. Implications in employment

People seek employment in order to fulfill the culturally accepted ways of making money. Employees tend to undergo recruitment into employment that suits their social status. Certain societies are implied as violent and seek make money through cri8minal behaviors. Many of the criminal activities involved in the work are may be culturally imposed. Many of the activities may be practiced whether illegal to meet the society’s expectation of making money. These include such outlawed activities like poaching and drug trafficking.

In the employment sector, many of the conflicts may be generated because of the imposed pressure on working spouses. In the long working hours societies, many individuals may be forced to work longer hours creating a conflict of interest with their spouses and families. Many of the rich employees may show a system of oppression as all factors of production, and their powers lie in their hands.

  1. Evidence

Evidence from past research and data shows that a highly populated and condensed area has increased crime rate. This creates a system of biases that fails to conduct business since time for the same is limited. Means of survival in such conditions point to a trend of survival for the fittest. In a society where resources are limited, and a bulging population resides, it is evident that the scramble would be imposed in order to create a system of alternative since time is limited, and individuals would engage in a scramble for the few available resources. These create a vacuum in law and order and thus crime rates escalate higher.


The concept of crime can vary from one society to another. Sociological aspects of crime are influenced in many categories of social levels.  Crime and crime behaviors are sometimes viewed as defiant social standpoints.  Many of the occurrences are in line with our hypotheses that crime rates are higher in poverty-stricken areas than other areas as individuals seek ways and means for survival. Organized criminal gangs are the evidence to refute this claim.  There is a general lack of norms and order in such areas and survival of the fittest proves futile.  The sociological theoretical perspective of crime is the primary causative agents of crimes and organized criminal gangs in such areas. From a sociological perspective, we explain that social-cultural changes give rise to crime, and there is no perfect single theory to explain the genesis of crime.


Alexander, J. C., Marx, G. T., & Williams, C. L. (2004). Self, social structure, and beliefs: Explorations in sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Riley, M. W. (2003). Sociological research. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Cottino.A (2006). Sicilian cultures of violence: The interconnections between organized crime and local society. Crime Law and Social Change Vol 32 Number 2

The paper attempts to explain the characteristics of three tiers of noncustomers form the book of

Assignment 6




The paper attempts to explain the characteristics of three tiers of noncustomers form the book of Blue Ocean Strategy, in relation to Apple-iPad Company and explains characteristic of each noncustomer. The company can focus on worldwide customers and attract customers who did not exist before by following the blue ocean strategies (Kim & Mauborgne, 2013).

The three tiers of noncustomers

There is no-hard-and-fast rule as to which noncustomer the Apple-iPad Company should value most since the scale of blue ocean opportunities reveals that a particular tier of the noncustomer can unlock and varies across time and industries. As a result, the company should put much focus on the tier that has the biggest catchment at the time while also examining where there are overlying commonalities in all the three tiers of noncustomers (Kim & Mauborgne, 2013).

The first tier noncustomers consist of customers who are soon to be noncustomers.  These types of customers use the current industry while offering minimal returns to the business while they continue looking for better options. As soon as an opportunity presents itself, they jump ship and leave the market. The Apple Company can create iPad products that the people want by themselves through value innovation by simultaneously pursuing product differentiation and low cost. The company can employ strategy canvas and the four action framework as analytical tools in order to eliminate reduce-raise-create grid and hence, reducing the gap of the noncustomer (Kim & Mauborgne, 2013).

The second tier of the noncustomer consists of the refusing noncustomers. These types of people either do not utilize or cannot utilize the current offerings in the market since find that the offering not acceptable or are beyond their needs. They tend to deal with their needs in other ways or ignore them. The company can apply the reconstruction thinking strategy to overcome the challenge of refusing noncustomer and to make iPad products that are easy to use. Since Apple Company aims to maintain the critical goal of satisfying its customers, the company can win the trust of refusing noncustomer using the blue ocean strategic thinking. The strategy relies on four principles which include focusing on the big picture, going beyond the prevailing demand, creation of uncontested market space and following the strategic sequence correctly.

The third tier of the noncustomer takes the farthest gap from the lines of customers existing in the industry. However, these types of noncustomers have not been fully engaged, or they are unexplored because are not targeted s potential customers in the industry. The reason for their untapped potential is the businesses assume their needs and business opportunities belong to other industries. The company can employ blues oceans principle of fair process and tip point leadership. The principles are important for a company to overcome political hurdles influence people involved in strategic execution from understanding the necessity to do away with status quo. When the company overcomes the organizational hurdles and maintains a culture aimed at implementing new strategic shifts, the business stands in a position draw in the unexplored customers and who can become the biggest catchment in the market niche (Kim & Mauborgne, 2013).


Companies often ignore the noncustomers since they believe they need are very different; therefore, they focus on the existence customers. However, the apple company in particular can unlock a new group of customers who did not exist before by expanding worldwide besides their customers.


Kim, W.C., Mauborgne, R. (2013). Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant. Boston: Harvard Business Press

Business Process Improvement

Business Process Improvement

























The paper identifies numerous critical segment of the employment arena in the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC). It attempts to examine the recruitment process at Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), create an overview of KPC including oil sector history in Kuwait; and explain Business Process Improvement (BPI) concept along with the steps for a successful business process improvement plan. Subsequently, model to redesign the process will follow a detailed analysis of the recruitment process in Kuwait Petroleum Corporation. Then, the paper will discuss the advantages of adopting the redesign process as well as the difficulties it will face during planning and implementation of the redesign. Finally, the paper will present some recommendations after the conclusion (Tétreault, 1995, pp34)


History of KPC


According to the Kuwait petroleum corporation and the economics of the new world order, in around 1920s oil had been discovered in significant sections of the countries surrounding and neighboring Kuwait. Kuwait at the time was witnessing several strange black patches in the desert hoping it meant that the black gold was in waiting for discovery. Expectations were very high and so in 1938 attention turned to Burgan  as oil was discovered in massive quantities in Kuwait.

In the early years of oil discovery, Kuwait’s hydrocarbon resources were controlled by Kuwait Oil Company (KOC), which was a foreign company at the time. But after 1972, Kuwait acquired 25 percent of KOC and in 1983 this percentage grew to be 51 percent, which also was rejected by the Kuwaiti parliament as they thought that Kuwait’s oil resources were extracted too rapidly (Tétreault, 1995, pp34). As a result, KOC was instructed to limit its production. That only drove the British Petroleum (BP) and Gulf Oil to extract as much as they can before full nationalization take place.

In 1974 Kuwait had already acquired 60 percent of KOC, and therefore the nationalization process was set to take place gradually so it won’t affect the price of oil. Moreover, in Dec. 1975 Kuwait government announced full nationalization of Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) by acquiring the remaining 40 percent. By 1979, the government had already taken over the oil business in Kuwait by acquiring several other oil companies: KNPC, PIC, Aminoil, Mina Abdullah Refinery, Kuwait Wafra Oil Company and KOTC.

Due to these major acquisitions, it was only reasonable to join their forces in order to be more coordinated and efficient. So, in 1980 Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) was initiated to serve as an umbrella to integrate oil industry in Kuwait. Currently, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC) is Kuwait’s national oil company that is responsible for Kuwait’s hydrocarbon interests throughout the world. The company’s products are sold internationally through its subsidiary’s name (Q8). And as part of the global energy industry, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation provides oil and gas needs by exploring, producing, refining, transporting and marketing these natural resources locally and globally. KPC also serves as a mother company for multiple oil companies in Kuwait which include: KOC, KNPC, KOTC and PIC to keep them under government control and other subsidiaries such as: KAFCO, KUFPEC, KPI-Q8, SFIC, KGOC. Although it has so many subsidiaries under its wings, KPC managed to keep each company focused on their own activities emphasizing on their areas of strength and took the responsibility of marketing Kuwait’s oil internationally (Tétreault, 1995, pp54).

However, throughout the years Kuwait Petroleum Corporation continue to grow and acquire other companies following its mission and vision of being the leading corporation in managing hydrocarbon related activities and maximizing shareholder’s value. KPC’s vision involves also improving and developing national manpower, by encouraging continuous learning in all areas related to KPC’s business. This requires the company to have a highly intelligent and developed recruitment process in order to have the best staff to train and improve to be the best in their areas of expertise.

Business Process Improvement (BPI)

Business Process Improvement (BPI) is known to be a set of tools that identify, analyze, and improve business processes in order to optimize performance and improve company’s effectiveness and efficiency. BPI is a process designed to reduce cost and cycle time as well as to improve quality at the same time. This process is usually paired with enhancement of information technology (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp 16). Why improve business process? In a developed organisation where innovation and constant improvements are key success factors, it’s important to always revise and monitor major processes. If it was noticed that a certain process was insufficient or lack efficiency, then the organisation must consider redesigning this process in a way that saves time and at the same time improve quality.

Organizations can benefit from business process improvement model in many ways, however it requires total commitment, as it can be time consuming and complex process but highly rewarding at the end. If the process was done correctly it will definitely save time and money by simplifying complex processes and eliminating unnecessary procedures within the process. It also helps to anticipate, manage, and respond to changes in the market more effectively, which will improve efficiency. BPI helps to better serve customers by revising strategies in order to improve skills and expertise, which will lead to exploiting new business opportunities. And to have the best results with BPI experts suggest organizations follow these six steps (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp 34):

  1. Identify the process and plan the change
  2. Analyze the process
  3. Redesign
  4. Acquire resources
  5. Implement
  6. Continually improve

In this paper we will only explain the first three stages of business process improvement.

1-      Identify the process and plan the change:

In this stage, managers are responsible to identify the process in need of change. This is done by first detecting key business processes (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp 25-34). Then manager must spot signs of trouble and inefficiency according to customers complains, time, and how complicated the process is. In the case of KPC it was noticed that there are three main processes to consider and these are internal recruitment process, applying online process, and the process of choosing the individuals. So in order to choose the process that the organisation will benefit more from redesigning, we decided to use the process selection matrix. This is done by rating each process according to certain criteria such as cost saving potential, complaints, ease to change, or the opportunity to change is high or low. The rating should be on a scale from 1-5 five being the highest.

Figure 1

This was done by the managers in different departments and was found that most of them think that it’s critical to change the internal recruitment process. Managers think that this particular process if improved will have great impact in terms of time management and cost.

2-      Analyze the Existing Business Process:

After planning the project and choosing the team responsible for redesigning the process, several steps must take place as part of phase 2. The first thing that has to be done is mapping the process and translate it into a set of  logical, interdependent activities that leads to the desired outcome. The process map is the key to determine the problem (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp12-20). The next step is to examine the process map. The team observes the process map and evaluates every step to spot the part where it needs to be modified to get best results. The purpose of analyzing the process map is to categorize the activities and rearrange them to the most efficient way. After that a team should interview stakeholders in order to take their comments on the project they are trying to do. And at the end of phase 2 we need to have a close estimate of where the company is in terms of other organizations.

Now in step one after we chose the process we’re going to redesign, we did a flowchart of the process as follow:

The goal of the process map is to find the weak points within the process that need to be changed.

  • Redesign

Out of the redesign process some of these critical issues must emerge out distinctively by the managerial team of the KPC so as to pave way for the stringent steps associated with the redesign activities. These steps include (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp25);

  1. Envisaging a good process
  2. Testing and assessment of the KPC teams ideas
  3. Considering and analysis of the potential threats of the newly redesign proposal
  4. Documentation and recording of the proposed redesign format
  5. Collection of the critical feedbacks from various stakeholders and vividly refocusing the structure of the new design

If the execution of the redesign process runs out well then, generation of substantial documents is very vital in the eventual culmination of the outstanding business outlay that is successfully presentable for approval by the management and other chief stakeholders. Taking with other members of the BPI team enables visualization of the business model of the anticipated business process conforms and it must address the pivotal obstacles countering the business opportunity. Moreover the exposure of the main challenges experienced in n KPC should be intimated on the project goals as collected from the interview with stakeholders and resultant outcomes from various benchmarking in the companies that practice in the similar business arena.  The redesign process ought to address satisfactorily the essence of customer satisfaction; regards on the quality of products; effective outline, for instance the amount of money spent on the initial quarter of the financial year and even cycle time duration.   According to Improving Business Processes, there well stated step that assist in achievement of essential business outline process. Consistent with Improving Business Processes, these step include, creation and writing of stories that intimates on the ideal and suitable business model, facilitation of loud reading of the story, documentation of the ideological creations and discussion of the inherent ideas. A follow up in assessment of the group’s thoughtful contribution is highly regarded and success outcome is only testable through analysis of the   effectual role playing, practice and actualization of the computer simulation. Furthermore, the analysis of the satisfactory redesign is achievable through the analysis of the organization aspects like structure, employee skills and numbers; customer   base desired and the system applicable.  In ensuring success of the redesign, refining of the redesign is laudable and presentation of flowchart and the essential documents that aided in the design of the key features to the stakeholders is immensely considerable.

  • Acquire resources

 Confirmable to, Improving Business Processes, the proper allocation of the resources determines the success of the business entity and thus acquisition of the resource to be reallocated comes handy. KPC as a company has most of its wealth in terms of assets in various sections and constituent portions of the   countrywide company.  The liquidation or sale of some potions would satisfactorily generate sufficient income to facilitate the critical appropriation of the company resources. As comparable to the company on its initial formalization, KPC is an established company, and operated on policies instigated and formulated by the government officials.  The company has access to the credit facilities to facilitate in reorganization of the company assets. The disposal of the poorly performing assets of the company would also assist in the creation of the sufficient funds admirable in the execution of the new business redesign.  KPC is a nationalized company and allocation of funds from the government is probable under the consideration of the government budgetary allocation (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp2)


  • Implement

For  KPC to triumphantly implement the  redesign  critical observance on business alignment is highly vital,  employee performance , proper definition of the  prioritized goals and an  engaged workforce   fundamentally inseparable from the assessment to assure of the  awesome successfulness of the  redesign program. The forwarding of the substantial quantifiable goals outline the organizational strategy of KPC is highly vital in determining the success of the company.  according to Improving Business Processes , the reorganization of the human resource segment to align their mind in the most gainful model to the company’s visions and the execution of the plan becomes a hurdle as comparison to the design of the same; for instance, placement of the right people with admirable skills in certain   specific and right job is very complex and arduous work. Most ritualistically, some portions fail to add act as expected in the general flow of things. While the  design outline  do not  fully offer the  actual  condition experienced on  grounds; for example,  a detailed  comprehension of people is  immensely desired to  fit the  proper  expectation of the company design.

The communication of the company visions and goals to every individual member of the company is overwhelmingly needed, specifically, the executives has the accountability of ensuring  the subordinates below them have the  adequate and cascaded image of the  company. Vividly, the employees must comprehend everything to do at any time duration so that no time is misappropriated. Clear definition of the strategic goals of the company is highly admirable to enable the quick following and adherence in execution. The design model provides the initial ease in terms of execution of the desired goals. In case that the design was   finely does, then people would find ease in its execution as provides clear and focused outline that facilitates the  various parts of the  company  to coordinate and propel the company desired in unison. Consistent with Improving Business Processes, elaborately design picture provides for any expected danger and the manager can really note any obstacle before he or she reaches the exact date. Under any emergent  problem then the manager meets the  other company employs  in structuring the way forwards to see of the  successful completion of the  expected  programs then the manager would always  replay the goals of the initiative to  verify how far the actualization of the  programs had  gone.

KPC is a wide and entrenched company; the accomplishment of the visions of the new redesign model is assuredly probable through the ensuring equal distribution of the information of the goals of the company to every member of the company. However, KPC being geographically complicatedly placed elegant spread of the information on the common goals would possibly be unachievable. The essence of distribution of the information highly important to the extent that it should be undertaken from  top to the bottom  and  along the horizontal planes  in the organizational chart.  This is in attempts to execute common goals by every individual propulsion effort. Presence of a committed and engaged community of workers shall see the working tirelessly to overcome the emergent challenges.  On other hand, presence of a reviewer who notes the far the programs has gone through is highly appreciable to get the system rolling. The employees can also be given additional incentives to recognize their effort and to keep them working hard on ensuring the completion of the desires of the company within the specified duration. The managers are left with the critical roles of coordinating and linking the different parts of the company to achieve   common goals.

During the implementation process accountability and responsibility of the successful accomplishment of the programs must be made tasked on head of every individual in that company. The absence of favoritism amongst the employees will see the maximum performance of each individual in claiming fighting for the success of the outlined programs. Other models of achieving high returns from the  employee team is through  keeping high tracks of  motivation and engaging modes for the  emulation by the  rest of the company members.

  • Continually improve

Confirmable to Improving Business Processes, the inseparable constituent of the actualization of the redesign program is through acknowledging of the fundamental issues on the continual reflection of the redesign to ensure absolute adherence to the requirement of the design. This will prevent fall outs along the way and achievement of the targeted issues within originally specified timeline.  Continual reference to the design aloes ensures that the strategy employed does not waver (Harvard Business Press, 2010, pp23).  Critical observance of the company vision and mission would keep the company on track of achieving its desired targets and always remind management and all other member of KPC of the essence of their contribution to the company. Respective checking of the alignment of the people or employees, goals, and the work outline process   would automatically KPC in actualization of great outcomes from the redesign it establishes in undertaking of the BPI.


Harvard Business Press, (2010), Improving Business Processes.Harvard Business School Press,1422172686, 9781422172681.Business & Economics Business Communication

Tétreault, M. A. (1995). The Kuwait petroleum corporation and the economics of the new world order. Westport, Conn, Quorum Books.

Grover, V., & Kettinger, W. J. (1995). Business process change: concepts, methods, and technologies. Harrisburg, USA, Idea Group Pub.


The Need for Multidisciplinary Rounds at CMC

The Need for Multidisciplinary Rounds at CMC

Wanda Baker

American Sentinel University

The Need for Multidisciplinary Rounds at CMC

The Intended Change

After speaking with my Nurse Manger, we both agree we would like to see improvement in the area of multidisciplinary rounds.  Multidisciplinary rounds refer to mechanisms through which healthcare providers in varied specialties meet so as to communicate and coordinate healthcare provision to the patients, as well as make joint decisions not to mention manage responsibilities. They allow several fundamental members of the healthcare team that is taking care of patients to come together and provide their expertise in taking care of the patients. It is noteworthy that, on numerous occasions, physicians prescribe a certain type of care for patients without incorporating other professionals’ input. While it is not required that they undertake multidisciplinary rounds, even highly efficient physicians would benefit from the input of other providers especially as far as enhancing the provision of healthcare services is concerned. The intended incorporation of multidisciplinary rounds would bring together all care providers every day to discuss each patient’s condition, as well as the occurrences of the past 24 hours while planning for the day ahead.  Hospitalists, nurses, case managers, social workers, respiratory, physical and occupational therapist and pharmacist, would engage in face-to-face communication and participate in decision making.  It is noteworthy that it is not a perfect world and not all of the disciplines can be available each day at a specific time.   At the minimum rounds should include the physician, bedside nurse, charge nurse, case manager and nursing manger if available and be completed in 30 minutes or less(Knowles, 2006).

Rationale for the incorporation of multidisciplinary rounds

Multidisciplinary rounds improve patient care and outcomes (Muething, Kotagal, Schoeltker, Gonzales, & Dewitt, 2007).  There is empirical evidence that multidisciplinary rounds are needed on our unit.  Right now there is not a multidisciplinary program in place.  The Hospitalist or Physician writes notes and tries to talk to the case manager and nurses on the fly by.  Often, a nurse is in the room providing care for  another patient then gets called to the nursing station because the Physician needs to speak to her about Mrs. J’s condition.  At certain times, the nurse may not be available to come right away, and the Physician tires of waiting and must go ahead and see Mrs. J.  When he has to do this it does not allow for him to receive an accurate update on Mrs. J’s condition, therefore, does not allow him to increase efficiency in prescribing care for Mrs. J. which may result in a longer hospital stay.  Multidisciplinary rounds would allow the entire process to happen at one time (Malcolm, 2011).

On the same note, multidisciplinary rounds are known to facilitate the implementation of invaluable clinical practices including evidence-based treatments for sepsis and acute lung injury, as well as prevention of complications arising in the ICU. Research shows that the participation of pharmacists in rounds results in a reduction in adverse drug events, which reduces the mortality rates among Intensive Care Unit patients (Boyle & Kochinda, 2004). In addition, multidisciplinary rounds come as one of the ways of enhancing communication between healthcare providers. It is noteworthy that the provision of efficient patient care is dependent on close communication between healthcare professionals such as nurses, physicians, physical therapists, as well as discharge planners (Boyle & Kochinda, 2004). In most cases, the numerous services that have to be offered and their consequent workload slows down communication as seen in Mr. J’s case. Scholars have also noted that the incorporation of multidisciplinary rounds enhances the satisfaction of the nurses and physicians, as well as patients. There is an overall improvement in the quality of care thanks to the enhanced collaboration and communication among the participants. This is especially considering that every team member is provided with an opportunity to offer his or her expertise, as well as bring up evidence-based practice or any new research, all of which will be channeled to the enhancement of healthcare services provided to the patient.

Audience to be convinced about the incorporation of Multidisciplinary Rounds

The success of this project is fundamentally built on consistency. Needless to say, consistency in carrying out multidisciplinary rounds would necessitate that the concerned parties be properly consulted and informed beforehand. This is especially considering that there is an element of difficulty in synchronizing or harmonizing the schedules of the different healthcare participants. It is worth noting that multidisciplinary rounds have, in the past, implemented in our unit without much success thanks to the fact that the parties concerned had not been appropriately consulted or even convinced about its importance.

In this case, it is extremely imperative that the medical director and the nursing director are convinced to allow for the incorporation of the multidisciplinary rounds. The basis of the conviction would be the alignment of the institution’s vision and mission with the expected outcomes of multidisciplinary rounds. The institution has outlined its mission as the provision of patient-centered healthcare, something that would require effective teamwork and communication, as well as a culture of safety among clinical nurse specialists, educators, physicians, nurses, dieticians, respiratory therapists, as well as other administrative and allied health leaders. While convincing the medical director and nursing director would be an immense step towards the implementation of the multidisciplinary rounds, it is imperative that all other mentioned parties are convinced about the importance of this exercise so that they can devote time to participate in the rounds. Convincing and consulting them will allow them to own the process and actively participate in it through personal initiative. The unit medical director ensures that every aspect pertaining to the patient as a whole is addressed. The primary nurse plans, coordinates, assesses and presents the case of the patients to the multidisciplinary team during the rounds. Intensivists would also need to be convinced as they provide clarity, as well as in-depth knowledge pertaining to the pathophysiology surrounding the medical diagnosis of the patient.

How the institution will benefit

The healthcare institution will undoubtedly be one of the biggest beneficiaries of the incorporation of multidisciplinary rounds. Enhanced communication and collaboration between the different healthcare professionals is bound to cooperation and efficiency in the provision of healthcare services. Needless to say, this would have a positive effect on the patients as research has shown that it reduces the amount of time that they spend in hospitals and enhance their experience. On the same note, the cooperation leads to increased satisfaction and motivation of the different healthcare professionals, something that leads to increased efficiency in the provision of healthcare services.

Main leaders of the initiative

It takes time for new ideas to be gradually introduced in an effort to implement the varied stages of change, as well as eliminate familiar practices (Grohar-Murray & Langan, 2011).  One of the things that my manager thinks would be effective in improving the efficiency of multidisciplinary rounds would be to have a rounding leader.   This could be the Charge Nurse of either shift and would be a good resource, since she receives a report on every patient.  This could also be decided in a group meeting with a vote from each member.  The person who is chosen must accept and commitment to the rounding leader role.  By having a leader, the Physician does not have to have a set time to make rounds on his patients.  He could receive most of the pertinent information from the rounding leader.  Another idea would be to try and find time allocated to round that all disciplines could meet to discuss the patient’s progress on a daily basis.  To try and implement multidisciplinary rounds into place, there must be rounding participants that are willing to make a daily commitment to be present during the rounds(Malcolm, 2011).

From a theoretical perspective linking staff member’s perceptions for the plan through social interaction can be conceptualized in many ways by bargaining between different professions as they come together to carry out their duties (Mconey & Schacht, 2000).  The structure of the health care team can be negotiated through a series of compromises between the team members to find time allocated to round.  The second stage of the change process would be moving, linking staff member’s goals, structures and strategies to transition the process of multidisciplinary rounds on the unit.  To negotiate this, we could call a meeting and ask that all staff to vote, to evaluate the effectiveness of every person’s perception of the project of implementing multidisciplinary rounds.  This should provide information on techniques that can be used to avoid problems during implementing the plan into action.  Provide the team with a checklist with supporting evidence that will show how multidisciplinary rounds will be integrated in day-to-day operations and the purpose for them.

Some tips for making Multidisciplinary Rounds effective would be:

  1. Make sure all disciplines understand why we are doing them
  2. Make sure all disciplines commit to attending rounds.
  3. Meet at the set time and location so all disciplines can plan their day
  4. Define roles and expectations for everyone that will be involved in the rounds
  5. Measure the outcomes, have weekly meetings to discuss any concerns and involve all disciplines involved in the rounds.
  6. Have monthly meetings to reeducate the entire staff of the unit, so they are aware of the changes allowing them to express any concerns they have and any new ideas.

There may be some resistance to this change, which is understandable.  Assuring that everyone will be well educated can enable them to deal with their emotions over the change (Grohar-Murray & Langan, 2011).  There is some time and commitment that must be put into this change by everyone involved so as to ensure or safeguard its success. To engage staff members, there must be a model that is followed and someone appointed to take on the initiative of encouraging everyone’s participation in the change.  The Normative-reeducative strategy, a philosophy that humans are driven by a commitment to norms and values, would come in handy (Grohar-Murray & Langan, 2011).  The Normative-re-educative strategy underlines the notion that, the norms pertaining to the interaction-influence system of an organization may be deliberately shifted or modified into more productive norms through the people’s collaborative action (Birtwistle et al, 2000).

Starting with small changes, reeducating to gain knowledge about the process and formulating new values and attitudes will motivate everyone to support the change.  See what happens with small changes then refine your approach as you go.  Have weekly meetings and ask: What went well and what could we do better?  Keeping a written record of findings will also be helpful in remembering details to discuss.  Involve staff to spot processes that need to be changed during staff meetings and try and implement these into the program, this will keep staff motivated to support the change.

Refreezing the change process will occur when there is consistent evidence that the use of multidisciplinary rounds is stabilized and has been integrated and internalized by the staff (Grohar-Murray & Langan, 2011).  Ongoing monitoring of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rounds will provide valuable information about how well the staff is adapting to the change.  Continuing to educate staff so that they understand the principles behind the change will enable the change to occur more rapidly and be better understood and accepted by all staff members.

Measures of success

The importance of the project lies in its success and the results. It is, therefore, imperative that appropriate measurements are adopted for the results so as to evaluate the effectiveness of the project. The success of Multidisciplinary rounds can be evaluated by measuring the efficiency of the healthcare facility. In this regard, information pertaining to costs per patient, patient volume and discharge rates would be used to assess the effects of multidisciplinary rounds implementation (Boyle & Kochinda, 2004).

On the same note, questionnaires may be used to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their families with the increased interaction. Questionnaires would incorporate questions pertaining to the having received sufficient explanation on the problem, tests, medications, as well as the relations between the physicians and the patient (Boyle & Kochinda, 2004). Scholars have noted that patients and their families like the sight of staff and different professionals talking or communicating with each other at the bedside, a factor that can be assessed through the use of questionnaires (Boyle & Kochinda, 2004).

In addition, the satisfaction of the healthcare providers and the professionals who participate in the multidisciplinary rounds will be evaluated using surveys (Birtwistle et al, 2000). These will be aimed at assessing the satisfaction of the professionals with the MDR, as well as MDR’s usefulness in from the care providers’ perspective.

In addition, it will be imperative that we gather data that yields the necessary information pertaining to the responsibility of every staff member for the change using a pilot program so as to measure the outcomes of the multidisciplinary rounds. This must be carried out once every two to three weeks with interventions rolled out and each one implemented.  The awareness of staff members involved in the multidisciplinary round process would be measured by their overall understanding of the process and the outcomes that were to be achieved(Muething et al., 2007).  This is also a good time to recognize good ideas from each staff member and brainstorm ways in which they could be implemented in to action.

When measuring outcomes, it is imperative that every staff member have a clear understanding of his or her responsibilities (Muething et al., 2007). These staff members have to be  held accountable for the performance of their responsibility.  For example, if it is the Charge Nurses’ responsibility to get a detailed report on each patient from the previous Charge Nurse to participate effectively in the multidisciplinary round process then she must be held accountable for obtaining this information.  The responsibility of the nurses’ report on each patient must be reinforced to the Nurse in charge.  She must understand that the collection and timing of this data is of vital importance to make sure the process is carried out smoothly and that any deviation from this could disrupt the positive outcome.  Multidisciplinary round response is needed to ensure coordination and communication from all staff members involved in the change to measure the outcome.

Lastly, celebrate results, for example, by rewarding staff with breakfasts or snacks in the break room or free lunch.  Continue to do this even after the change is working well.  Continued success in the long-term incorporation of Multidisciplinary rounds would only be cemented through continuing to reward everyone’s effort for their hard work and commitment (Cott, 1998).  Working in a unit that is focused on patient satisfaction and team work reflects on all staff members so everyone will want to engage their commitment in the rounding process.  Through education, monitoring, and debriefing, the unit can change their culture so that the nurses and other staff members involved in the multidisciplinary round process will now see it as part of their practice and take pride in it.  Multidisciplinary rounds reflect on the patient that our attitudes are geared more towards cooperation and teamwork and patients like to see that we are part of a team working towards improving their health (Grohar-Murray & Langan, 2011).


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Knowles, M. (2006, Apr.). Innovation and teamwork: introducing multidisciplinary team ward rounds. Nursing Management UK, 13, 28-31.

Malcolm, J. (2011, Jan ). Rounds cut los, improve patient satisfaction. Hospital Case Management, 6-12.

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Muething, S., Kotagal, U., Schoeltker, P., Gonzales, J., & Dewitt, T. (2007, April 1, 2007). Family centered beside rounds. Pediatrics, 119, 829-832.