The Reach and Grasp Movements

The Reach and Grasp Movements

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Hand movements have been the subject of an increasing number of studies over the last one decade with numerous research depicting that some of the major factors that affect motor learning  in relation to reach and grasp movement being cognitive processes, movement organization and the environment. Given the many research studies that have been done on this topic, this paper examines the factors affecting the reach and grasp activities with special reference to objects like empty glass and glass with water and tennis ball.

The effect of environment can be explained thus; According to (Pantes, 2009) reach and grasp movements requires the hand to be transported to an object of interest whilst the fingers are pre-shaped to match the dimension of the target object. These two components are closely attached in space and time with alterations to one component causing changes in the other. Studies have explored the manner in which the nervous system controls these components of hand movement when reaching to grasp an isolated object within the work space.

According to (Sveistrup, 2008), in the last one decade, cognitive science has greatly helped in showing interest in understanding the relation between the functional processes necessary to initiate a goal-directed action and the processes essential for perception and thought. For instance, correlation effects existing between motor response and object discernment is two directional. That is, possible actions can be effected by stimuli and characteristics of a set action can manipulate the perception of stimulus features (Fagioli & Schubotz, 2007).

Studies have shown that during the reach, the finger closes and this process is dependent upon highest point of aperture amplitude, as well as acceleration and velocity of the hand. This dependence suggests the existence of a control law according to which a decision to initiate finger closure during the reach is made when the hand distance to target crosses a threshold that is a function of the above movement-related parameters (Weir, 1994, 203).

When we consider the structure of a motor, the area F5 concentrates on the organization of the hand grasping movements. In order to grasp an object, an individual must be able to control hand and finger movements and precisely shape his/her hand before touching the object. The first process depends, largely on the precentral motor (F1) (Sveistrup, 2008, 81).

One most important factor affecting the touch and grasp movement is the visual properties of the object. Scientifically an object can only been seen by the human eyes only if the light of reflection from the object hits the human eye causing a recognition of that particular object due to the reflex actions and further prompting the touch and grasp movements respectively (Weir, 1994 109).

A fundamental issue that any model of grasping has to address is the fact that there are several ways of grasping. The selected grip depends on the visual character of object, but also on object functions and the motives of the agent. Let us imagine a glass that is empty, glass containing water and a tennis ball. Once any of the object is recognized as the object, both the empty and the filled glass will be held similarly that is by the body but the force will differ due to weight exerted on the hand from the content of both glasses. For the tennis ball the grasping will be different because of its shape. The fingers will be twisted inwardly in order to accommodate the round shape of the tennis ball. The selection of one of these possible ways of grasping depends on preliminary object recognition and on agent intention, and not exclusively on the visual intrinsic properties of the object (Cazzagon, 2011, 98).

Our views on the learning factors of motor system have been broadened extensively as a result of the ever evolving discoveries and with the growth of technical know how motor system functions as ceased to be a debated topic but an experimental one

  1. Sveistrup, H. (2008). Head, arm and trunk coordination during reaching in children: Experimental Brain Research. New York: Longman Groups Limited.
  1. Ng, Tommy H. B. (2010). Premovement brain activity in a bimanual load-lifting task: Experimental Brain Research. New York and London: Routledge
  2. Ashford, Derek. (2007). Developmental effects influencing observational modelling: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences 25(5)
  3. Pantes, G. (2009). Memory pointing in children and adults: dissociations in the maturation of spatial and temporal movement parameters. Experimental Brain Research 76, 56-70
  1. Bruce, C., Desimone, R., & Gross, C.G. (1981). Visual properties of neurons in a polysensory area in superior temporal sulcus of themacaque. J. Neurophysiol. 46, 369–384
  2. Friedemann, M., & Johannes, D.(1994). Neuropsychologia,  32  2 265-269
  3. Randall, J. F., & Roland, S. J. (2003). Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (Vol. 30 pp. 399-414) Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.
  4. Weir, P. L. (1994). Object Property and Task Effects on Prehension: In Insights into the Reach to Grasp Movement. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  1. Cazzagon, M. (2011). A protocol for the assessment of sensory re-weighting in the development of coordination during reach-to-grasp in children: Gait & Posture. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
  2. Pantes, G. (2009). Memory pointing in children and adults: dissociations in the maturation of spatial and temporal movement parameters: Experimental Brain Research New York: Prentice Hall.

 

 

 

 

The Ramayana: Reflections On Common, Fundamental Aspects Of World Civilization

The Ramayana: Reflections On Common, Fundamental Aspects Of World Civilization

Human civilization touches on three important aspects namely religion, social and political attributes of the society as illustrated in various epics. In this discourse, Ramayana is discussed with a reflection of how other civilizations incorporated the three or some of the society attributes mentioned. Ramayana is a poetic epic describing ancient Indian interactions with religion and sociopolical factors in the civilization. Basic teachings on life of the ordinary Indian and perhaps that of many Asians are depicted in the life of the epic characters in the series of books touching on the narrative. Ideals of life in the various perspectives depicted in the lifestyles adopted in the presentation of the main characters achieve the intended furnishing and teachings of the epic. King Dasaratha has three wives and four sons among them, Rama, Lakshmana and Satrughna with first wife Queen Kaushlaya and Bharata with a second and younger wife, Queen Kaikeyi (Mythome para.9).

Prince Rama was next in line to the throne of his father and King but faced the obstacle in form of his step mother who proposed her son Bharata for the same despite being younger. Under the King’s decree on a promise to fulfill two desires of this wife, she had Rama banished paving the way for her son’s rise to the throne. Rama’s wife, Sita and his younger brother, Lakshmana accompanied him on his forest retreat (Mythome para.5). These events happened behind Bharata’s back and he sought Rama into the forest upon learning the sad developments. Rama refused to return as Bharata pleaded but his promise to wait for his banishment to end for him to return to his rightful position on the throne strengthens their relationship to the dismay of the Bharata’s mother. The epic concludes in a scene of abduction of Sita where Rama spirited fight secures her release and demands for a sign of her purity before he could accept her back into his life. Rama proceeds to his throne as promised by his step-brother, paving in a time of a success regime guided by virtue and justice. Upholding one’s dharma is taught in the story with these main characters taking the fore front.

Sociocultural teachings of virtue in the society are flouted by evil characters such as Bharata’s mother and the demon abducting Sita. Political rot is seen when the king fails to deliver justice to his kingdom just for the sake of a promise to his scandalous young wife. On the other hand, vices are defeated by the cooperation shown by the young people who turn evil away and follow their dharma. Religion and virtues as depicted in the epic constitute an important part of the society if justice in political and social scenes is to thrive. Most stable civilizations in the human history are perhaps built on the willingness of harmony in sociopolitical and religious teachings.

Similarities with Other Epics

Ramayana is similar in presentation to the Epic of Gilgamesh by taking the poetry form contained in a series of tablets as is the case of books in Ramayana. The King of Uruk despite having both deity and human forms does not discharge justice to his people just as King Dasaratha as seen in the Ramayana. Vices such as prostitution and oppression emerge and young men such as Enkidu emerge to fight against it and the conversion of Gilgamesh through the eventful cedar forest journey presents the turning point. Politics temptation towards failure to assume justice in the society is fought through complicated contribution of sacrifice as illustrated in the death of Enkidu during the journey. Religion is important, in that the characters in this epic take various forms of the deity and contribution to human life is restoring harmony is appreciated.

The origin of the Roman Republic and end to the Roman Empire was the struggle for equal governance and political development devoid of oppression and exclusion. The overthrow of the Roman Empire was designed to introduce a more politically sensitive management of sociocultural concerns. Religion was powerful in defining the beliefs of the Roman Empire, extending beyond social order, to also include political interpretations. Epics describing the process of restoration of justice to the oppressed, proper governance to the people in form of the republic and propagation of religion as a fundamental aspect of social order are well represented.

In terms of similarities between the Ramayana and the ancient Egyptian civilization, political power was abused by the Pharaohs with disguise of their superhuman position to wield more power against the masses. Continued strengthening of the position of the Egyptian kings led to undisputed elevation of the Pharaoh and other royal officials into deities with powerful status in the society leading to social inequalities. Similarly, early Indian civilization can be highlighted with such a perspective due to the disparities created between the political leadership and the oppressed majorities. Suffering of the oppressed in the Indian populace as built on a religious belief of the caste segregation further heightened the establishment of rifts between the wealthy and the poor. Among the most influential factors in the early Indian Civilization is the interaction of social and religious beliefs in shaping the political class. Social classes originating from the religious beliefs of deity and human relations greatly influenced how the powerful and the poor were perceived in the civilization. Perhaps modern Indian society is a recreation of the early Indian civilization in sociocultural and political interpretations.

The attributes of the classical Greece civilization touch on religion based on several mythical interpretations of deity and human relations, which impacted on the sociopolitical setting. Social structures in classical Greece were rigid and religion and politics shaped the kind of relations that the Greeks had with each other. Politics was a strong point for the Greeks with historical inclination to militarism and highly centralized forms of government with powerful leaders. Oppression of the weak by ruthless military hungry rulers led to the reorganization of city states that eventually gave rise to democracy and representational leadership that reduced inequality between leaders and subjects. Religion shaped several beliefs particularly on the social scenes where human beings were required of observing high social values set by religious beliefs and enforced by ruthless political leadership.

Works Cited

Mythome, “Ramayana: Summary,” mythome.org, n.d., Web. http://www.mythome.org/RamaSummary.html (Accessed 15 March 2012)

The Rain Man stars Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise. The movie was made in 1988. The movie

Rain Man

The Rain Man stars Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise.  The movie was made in 1988.  The movie is about an autistic man  named Raymon, who is a idiot savant played by Dustin Hoffman and his fast, talking self absorbed, egocentric brother  Charlie Babbitt, who is played by Tom Cruise.  A egocentric person is a person with the simple recognition that every living thing views the world from a unique, self-oriented perspective(LIFE: Inherently Egocentric written by James Craig Green  http://pw2.netcom.com/~zeno7/ego.html).

Charlie is a car salesman whose business is going down hill.  Charlie and his girlfriend are on their way to Palm Springs when Charlie gets a call from his friend and co-worker. He tells him that his fathers’ lawyer has been trying to reach him, because his father was dead and the funeral was the next day. Charlie who never had a good relationship with his father decided to go out there to pay his respects and to go get his share of his fathers estate.  When the lawyer read the will, Charlie finds out all he received was his fathers’ 1949 Buick and his prized rose bushes.  The lawyer says the rest of the estate is going to a beneficiary. Charlie is mad at what his father did. He tries to find out who get everything else, because it is worth about three million dollars. Charlie finds out the name and location of the beneficiary, but does not know anything else.  So Charlie goes to Wallbrook  institution to find out who this guy is.  While he is inside a man comes up to Charlies’ car and hops in.  He says he drove it just last week. After Charlie asks him a couple of questions he finds out that they are brothers.  Charlie’s first impression of Raymon is that he is retarded. Charlie decides in order to get his cut of his fathers’ money, he will abduct his brother and wait for them to hand him his one and a half million dollars as a ransom because he thinks he deserves it. Charlie takes Raymon from Wallbrook and heads out on the road back to Los Angeles. Charlie tells him if they make it back soon they can go and see a Dodgers game. Charlie’s girl friend objects to what Charlie is doing to Raymon and decides to leave him.

The next morning Charlie and Raymon go out for breakfast and Raymon starts to throw a fit when the maple syrup is not on the table before they order.  He also wants toothpicks to eat with, not the knife and fork provided. Charlie goes and calls the doctor to tell him he has Raymon and won’t give him up until he gets his 1.5 million dollars.  In the mean time Raymon gets up and starts wandering. After Charlie gets Raymon back to his seat he decides to give in and  tells the waitress to get them some toothpicks so Raymon can eat. She accidentally drops them when she and Raymon run into each other.  He quickly counts how many have fallen to the ground.  First he mumbles 82 then he mumbles quietly for some time and says there are 246 toothpicks on the ground, as they’re walking away Charlie asks the waitress how many toothpicks there are in the box.  She says 250, then says there are 4 left in the box. This is where you first realize that Raymond isn’t just mentally disabled but  is a idiot savant.  This is a rare condition where people with severe mental handicaps have a spectacular ability in one skill or area.

Half way through the trip Charlie decides to take Raymon to a doctor to actually find out what is really up with him.  When Charlie is done filling out the forms he hands them to the nurse and she reads it and says, “is he artistic”, Charlie says ,“no he is Autistic”. Autism  is the developmental disorder, usually appearing before age three, characterized by impaired non-verbal and verbal communication, including abnormal speech patterns or loss of speech; lack of eye contact; a restricted range of interests; resistance to change of any kind; obsessive repetitive body movements, such as hand flapping or spinning; a lack of awareness of the existence or feelings of others; social isolation; and no comfort seeking in times of distress. (www.encyclopedia.com/autism/1999).  Anyway when they finally got into the doctors office  the doctor discovered that Raymon was an idiot savant after asking him some questions in which Raymond had answered all the answers quickly and correctly.

As they are making their way to LA they pass through Las Vegas.  After they pass through Charlie calls his business to find out what has happened since the last time, he finds out that he is in financial trouble.  They need to come up with about $80,000 in a couple of days.  Charlie figures out he can use Raymon for betting since Raymon is an idiot savant, he can remember and figure out the odds of different combinations, including cards.  Charlie decides to turn back and go to Las Vegas to try and use Raymon to win money.  When they get to the tables they start winning.  In one situation when they are playing blackjack Raymon has an 18 and decides to hit, he ended up busting with a queen.  Then Charlie says, ”what are you doing, I could have used that,” Raymon replies there are  plenty of them.  So Charlie hits and stays at 19, then it is the dealers turn and he ends up busting by getting two queens.  Charlie and Raymon end up winning about $86,000.  Raymon talks to a woman during their stay in the hotel and sets up a date with her.  She ends up never showing up.  Charlies girlfriend who showed up earlier goes down with him, she and Raymon end up dancing in the elevator and they also kissed.  After that Charlie is asked to leave the state because he was caught counting cards which is illegal, so Raymon, Charlie, and his girlfriend all leave and Charlie lets Raymon drive the Buick.

The next thing you know Charlie and Raymon are in LA at Charlies’ home.  Charlie shows Raymon around and shows him his room.  Charlie finds that he has a message from the doctor  saying to call him because he wants to meet him.  Charlie meets him later that night and they talk about how Charlie now wants to be the legal guardian of Raymon and that he doesn’t want the one and a half million dollars.  He is not mad about the money any more he is now mad that for over 25 years nobody ever told him he had a brother.  Charlie decides that he is going to go to court to try and win  custody of Raymon, although another doctor evaluates Raymon and recommends that he should go back to Wallbrook.  After a scene in which Charlie talks to Raymon and says that this is the last time they might ever get to talk Charlie tells Raymon that he loves him.  In the next scene  you see Charlie and Raymond outside a Amtrak train.  Charlie tells Raymond that he will miss him and he will be out to Ohio to visit him in 2 weeks.  That is how the movie ends.

There are three principals psychological concepts used in this movie.  They are autism, egocentrism and idiot savant.  Charlie is self centered and egocentric.  He thinks and regards himself as the center or object of all experiences around himself.  He feels he is being cheated out of the money.  He doesn’t think how much Raymon needs it.

Although Raymon is somewhat egocentric because of his autism he is primarily autistic.  He sees the world in parts, not as a whole and is unable to make connections.  He knows the “who’s on first” joke but is unable to understand humor.  He knows his underwear are from a certain K-Mart, but can’t understand all K-Marts are the same.  The most remarkable thing about Raymon is that he is an idiot savant autistic. An idiot savant is a person who is brilliant at a 1 thing only but has no comprehension in other aspects of life.  In the movie Raymon was good at all mathematical equations but he could not grasp the concept of money, how it was used and what it meant.  He needed help with his daily living skills and could not take care of himself.  This is an extremely rare condition because his skills are so spectacular in math that they would appear brilliant even in a normal person.  The mathematical ability is very limited.  Raymon can calculate calendar dates and add sums, but he can’t make change.

This film portrays autism very realistically.  Even though all autistic people are not as high functioning as Raymon it is believable and possible.  Most adults with Raymon’s condition would live in a home where everything could be structured and safe.  The fact that Raymon is a brilliant idiot savant would be interesting but have little value in his day to day life.

Charlie’s portrayal as an egocentric person was also very believable.  It was obvious from the beginning of the movie that he viewed everything that happened very personally.  He was self-centered and could not think of others.  By the end of the movie he learns to think of others including Raymon and he even wants to incorporate Raymon into his everyday life.  I think it happened too quickly though, I mean how many people can go from being egocentrical to a person  who is at the exact opposite side of how to live life.

Even today autism is not recognized or else it is misunderstood by the public, parents and professionals. This film put a lot of the rumors of autistics and savants to rest. Before this movie not a lot of people had known how you could recognize an autistic person. This film was a really good film.  As stated before this film not many people knew much about autistic people.  This film opened up the eyes of people to autistics.  This was the first film to actually show how autistic people live and how they like to have a daily schedule.

The radical changes in the technologies used by organizations

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The radical changes in the technologies used by organizations

 

Question 1

The radical changes in the technologies used by organizations have introduced mechanisms that enhance the growth of international business. Most organizations in the current world strive to make their businesses international. This has led to a rapid growth of international businesses. Competition at the domestic and international levels is always stiff, so firms have to extend their market borders. They also have to utilize unique strategies of maintaining their customers and creating new relationships with others. As a result, management functions are affected. To achieve these objectives, firms require alterations within their management functions.

The organizational structure for international businesses is not the same as that of local ones (Brady, 2010, 176). The management requires efficient planning and control to ensure smooth running of the business in all its market regions. The management needs to make regular changes to accommodate the international growth. This is also necessary to avoid using strategies that are not responsive to the foreign market. It also has to increase the number of staff members to enhance productivity. The management must also use efficient ways of managing its staff. International businesses may require the locals of a region to work in their branches. This encourages the growth of sales because people feel emotionally satisfied when they deal with individuals they can relate with. The management also requires skill to deal with various groups of employees. They should learn different cultures to avoid interfering with the beliefs of a group of people, especially when assigning tasks. It also needs to engage in regular training of employees to keep up with the growing technology.

International businesses involve more decision making than domestic ones. The management should employ strategies that will help maintain international markets. Organizations that operate as global businesses should have decentralized international operations. This enhances decision making at lower management levels since the global organizational structure of companies involves a vast population of employees. This saves time because the higher management only left with critical decisions to make. It also ensures that the business focuses on market driven imperatives instead of irrelevant issues.

Communication is also an essential factor in international businesses. The firm has to ensure that all its branches in the world can communicate efficiently for proper supply of products and services. The management may have to lengthen its communication channels because timing is critical in the international market. Research is also essential to determine market regions. The management should search for market regions that relate with their products. International businesses grow rapidly, so regular research is necessary to improve products and also introduce new ones. The firm will require an efficient research team to identify target markets for a firm’s products. It helps to gain a competitive advantage among firms. The growth of international businesses demands regular change of equipment and technology used in production. The growth of international businesses also requires adequate and efficient strategies for dealing with situations such as global economic decline.

Question2

Fredrick Winslow Taylor came up with the scientific management approach, which involved the relationship between labor and management (Naidu and Rao, 2008, 13). The general objective of an appropriate management is to provide high wages and maintain low production cost. These objectives require application of scientific research methods and experiment that enhance formation of principles and processes that improve manufacturing operation. Employees require equipment and working conditions to reach a scientific standard. Training is also essential for improvement of skills and average output. The management and workers also need to cultivate a close and friendly cooperation to the goals of scientific management. The principles of Taylor’s approach addresses aspects such as harmony between the employees and the management and the development of the workers. Before Taylor came up with his approach, managers did not have a way of determining the preferred speed for a job. They used past experiences to guide them through the process. Taylor provided a solution for this problem. According to him, work should be broken down into its constituents to get rid of those that waste time. The time study analyzes the constituents of tasks and also determines aspects such as future principles and amounts of pay. This contribution is essential in management because for a firm to progress, the workers have to receive fair pay, which is equivalent to the amount of work they do. Managers should also have an appropriate way of determining setting goals for workers to achieve.

Taylor also introduced standardization of tools for efficiency. Before his discovery, many workers used private tools that were not fit for the tasks they performed. Taylor advocated for standardization of tools because different tasks require a variety of tools in terms of size and efficiency. Taylor also ensured that every worker is assigned an amount of work based on the outcome of the time study. His definition of management is understanding what an organization requires from its employees, and then ensuring that they produce quality work in the cheapest way possible. He also claimed that any management needed to create a design for a job and the tasks associated with it. This should have written instructions and an allocation of time. Employees who meet the requirements should get high wages while those who do not should get a basic wage. Taylor also introduced the concept of functional foreman to reduce complexity of management. This concept involved appointment of a senior manager to plan, analyze and control the workers and the processes in the organization. He also suggested that authority should be based on knowledge, so he came up with the exception principle. This principle gave senior managers extra freedom because they were not involved in the same tasks as those of the functional foremen. For this reason, managers only got condensed reports for setting standards, so they could deal with the broader aspect of policy and lead those below him in a more efficient manner. He also suggested that organizations should pay the workers and not their positions. This encourages them to work hard for a pay increase. Taylor also opposed group tasks and encouraged individual rewards. He claimed that individualized work encouraged a personal desire to perform a task. Group work did not give one personal ambition and people worked against the notion of better work and pay. He also introduced the idea that the management had a responsibility of training its staff for better performance. Many organizations left workers to learn skills from experienced workers. This method did not enhance maximum production because some experienced workers did not have adequate skill. Fatigue reduces productivity so, employees should also work for short hours with rest pauses that relate to the difficulty of the task involved. This gives employees time to recover their energy especially for those with difficult tasks.

Question 3

The business world is extremely competitive, so organizations should utilize various strategies to deal with the situation. Organizations should first carry out extensive market research to determine their competitors. This will help the organization to find its loop holes. It will also assist in determining the weaknesses of their competitors. All organizations have weaknesses but they are not openly displayed to other organizations. This is a move that enhances creation of unique strategies. The organization should also increase its industry knowledge to come up with creative ideas for dealing with competition. Some businesses face difficulties when dealing with competition because they place themselves in irrelevant markets. Businesses should find markets that are relative to their competition. All organizations enter into a market region for different purposes. A company like Apple Inc. manufactures high end models of electronics while Dell deals with the low end. A company should ensure that they are competing with relevant organizations to avoid incurring losses.

Brand recognition is also another factor that helps businesses to thrive in their market regions. It is significant in building trust and loyalty among clients. Brand recognition creates positive links with the products a company wishes to introduce to the market (Gelder, 2005, 149). Organizations should ensure that customers do not have negative links with their products to avoid facing competition. Companies should ensure that their customers can differentiate their products with those of their competitors. Campaigns are also essential when the reception of a product is negative. Product differentiation is also essential when businesses are facing immense competition because it enhances competitive advantage. It helps to meet the needs of different customers, so they will not have reason to go for the same products from an organization’s competitors.

Product differentiation may not be simple, so companies must find unique ways of coming up with different products. A company may pick out ingredients that are not liked by many customers. They will make their products different by omitting a chemical that is not appreciated by the market. The company may also change its packaging to suit the preferences of various customers (Taylor, 2008, 300). Organizations should also determine their target markets to enhance product differentiation. For example, cellphones may be of the same design but they have different features for various age groups. Companies should also know that they cannot get all the customers in a market region. Their goal is to get the most in the region, so this calls for identification of target customers. This will ensure maximum and effective utility of resources. Organizations should also ensure that they are at per with the moves of their competitors. They should follow aspects such as introduction of different products and price changes. Following the moves of competitors does not mean the organization should become a copycat. This will be advantageous to its competitors because thy will act as the leaders. When a competitor reduces the prices of their products to attract more customers, an organization should use a different strategy that will not only reduce the prices, but also increase competitive advantage. Organizations should also use efficient manpower and advanced technology to maintain its customers. A company cannot succeed in a market region if its internal structure is unstable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

BRADY, L. D. (2010), Essentials of International Marketing, New York: M. E. Sharpe.

GELDER, S. V. (2005), Global brand strategy: unlocking brand potential across countries,

cultures & markets, London: Kogan Page.

NAIDU, N.V.R. and RAO. K. T. (2008), Management And Entrepreneurship, New Delhi: I. K.

International Pvt Ltd

TAYLOR, J. B. (2008), Economics. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin.

The racial minorities have increased in the workplace over the last two and a half decades because of

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Question 1

The racial minorities have increased in the workplace over the last two and a half decades because of affirmative action requirements. In spite of the progresses that the American workforce has made in terms of diversity, discrimination continues to exist. Among the issues include racial stereotyping, where the Black minority employees are still defined in terms of their racial characteristics (Thompson). For instance, the minority employees have to ‘suck it up’ during interaction with their more dominant counterparts. For instance, the white folks have often been seen to jump at the chance of translating or rephrasing their black folks’ idea. An addition key challenge is the practice of promoting employees on the basis of demonstrated competencies and abilities. Such incidents have made it seem that the white folks have appeared to understand each other better, despite speaking the same language with the same level of articulation (Jackson).

In regards to the racial issues at the workplace, I believe that the American organizations are doing much better than other countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, Britain and Japan. Indeed, employers in the United States are increasingly recognizing the importance of workforce, with each of them acknowledging the significance of minority employees. This is in reference to hiring employees from different cultural background, so as to make the organizations more diverse. It appears that current American workforce has rejected cultural ethnocentrism – which refers to the belief in domination of one race or culture over the other. This is because of the growing respect for cultural diversity and the American legal system that promotes nondiscrimination and equal opportunity at the workplace.

Question 2

A dramatic rise in the number of women in the workplace has been observed in the American workplace because of affirmative action legislations and equal opportunity actions, economic realities and feminist movement. Despite this, a number of issues still hold women back from attaining full equality status, compared to that of men at the workplace (Slaughter).

The lives of women differ from that of men, since they have the child bearing responsibilities; hence they have to reduce their full-time commitment at work, to take care of their families. This issue cannot be resolved since child-bearing is inherently the role of women and therefore cannot be substituted or shared with men (Thompson). In any case, the top executive can ensure that women’s family needs are addressed by initiating organizational child care and spouse relocation programs.

The glass ceiling also hinders the advancement of women. This comprises of an invisible barrier to movement, through the ladder to the top management level that result from discrimination at work, inability to penetrate the predominantly male-dominated workplace and the tendency of the management to promote those who are like them. Hence, despite the increased number of women executives and in top leadership positions, their transit to the positions has stalled.

Some myths that women are inherently not interested in jobs that require full-time commitment, such as travelling overseas, has also hindered their advancements. These issues can, however, be resolved as they mostly concern organizational cultures. For instance, companies can break through the myths that women may not accept overseas assignments. To ensure this, they can help the women to break through the glass ceiling and to attain top-level management positions through diversity programs. Organizations can also create career development programs that motivate women to apply for top-level management positions or international assignments.

Question 3

The executive pay in the U.S. today characterizes a flawed compensation arrangement. The problems are focused on two issues. First, the executives get exceedingly high pay. Second, the current incentive pay schemes are also flawed since the link between the excess executive pay and company performance is diverse, leading to dysfunctional behaviors. This implies that the executives in the United States receive higher pay than their counterparts in other countries. The higher pay is attributed to the dependence on incentive pay (Bloxham). This also implies big pay disparities where the executives are paid high wages while the employees get less than living wage. The underlying problems contributing to exceedingly high executive pay include unprepared compensation boards or committees to make decisions on executive compensation, since they have no expertise on the subject. There are also inadequate discussions on executive pay. The third red-flag is the distorted relationship between the company performance and executive compensation (Bloxham).

In my opinion, the solution to the problems of the excessive executive pay and the desire to strengthen the connection between performance and pay touch on the same theme. These include strengthening the independence of the compensation committees and directors to allow them to make decisions on executive payment that are independent from internal influences. The rights of the shareholders should also be increased, hence enabling them to elect directors and to communicate their views on the compensation arrangements and to align the CEO incentives more with the objectives of the owners. Organizations should also have better compensation schemes and improved mechanisms for linking the executive pay to the performance of stock. The organizational constitutions should be reformed so that to bar the company executives from serving in the audit committees and board compensation boards.

Works Cited

Bloxham, Eleanor. “The rise of dumb pay at America’s largest corporations.” Fortune, 1 May 2014. 12 June 2014, <http://fortune.com/2014/05/01/the-rise-of-dumb-pay-at-americas-largest-corporations/>

Jackson, Camille. “The Only One: Being Black in the White Working World,” 19 March 2002. 12 June 2014, <http://www.alternet.org/story/12661/the_only_one%3A_being_black_in_the_white_working_world>

Slaughter, Anne-Marie. “Why Women Still Can’t Have It All.” The Atlantic, 12 June 2012. 13 June 2014, <http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/07/why-women-still-cant-have-it-all/309020/>

Thompson, Derek. “The 23 Best Countries for Work-Life Balance (We Are Number 23).” The Atlantic, 12 Jan 2012. 12 June 2014, <http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/01/the-23-best-countries-for-work-life-balance-we-are-number-23/250830/>

Thompson, Derek. “The Workforce Is Even More Divided by Race Than You Think.” The Atlantic, 6 Nov 2013. 12 June 2014, <http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/11/the-workforce-is-even-more-divided-by-race-than-you-think/281175/>

Religion is a very important component of the human society. It is definitely does not come as a surprise

Introduction

Religion is a very important component of the human society. It is definitely does not come as a surprise that recent times has seen tremendous growth in the church as well as changes in the way things are done in the churches. There are also changes in the ways in which the various religions view each other. Abdulaziz Sachedina takes the time to examine the Muslim society and its view of other religions such as Christianity in the essay titled “The Quran and Other Religions”. Abdulaziz is a modern scholar seeing that he quotes extensively not only from ancient books but also from works of modern scholars.

Thee chapter addresses the issue of pluralism of religions and examines  the Islamic scriptural sources in an effort to show that the Quran as well as its interpreters acknowledged the need for provision of principles guiding the co-existence among varied religious communities as a prerequisite for peaceful living (pg 291). The author addresses the issue of religious pluralism looking at the capability of varied spiritual paths to guide and save their adherents. He is concerned about this particular topic having acknowledged that the recognizing religious pluralism in a community of faithful would be capable of promoting inclusiveness as a practical principle in which while competing claims to religious truth would exist, it would not bring about conflict within the culturally and religiously varied societies (pg 293). He acknowledges that the exclusiveness should be leading to numerous possibilities for enhancing the quest for moral as well as spiritual well-being in the religious traditions apart from one’s own (pg 293). The author feels that many religiously oriented intellectuals and modernists have not recognized the effects of history on the hermeneutics of Quran. This has led to unjustified accusations and misunderstandings on Muslims as well as their scriptures. Consequently, this misrepresentation about Muslims and Islam has brought about concerns and fears which have transmuted into violence and hatred. It is important that we be concerned about the acknowledgement of pluralism more so having in mind that it is only when every religion acknowledges the diversity of the beliefs that the oneness of humanity would be reached thereby promoting peaceful co-existence. This is important not only for spiritual growth but also development in other facets of life.

Sachedina insinuates that since time immemorial, Islam and the Quran have always propagated for pluralism. He states that the Quran message underlines the particular as well as the universal dimensions of the human society. At the individual level, the Quran conveys the particular identity of an individual as “belonging to the community of faithful gathered under its founder” (pg 293), who would guide the people to complete welfare on earth and the world yonder. Universally, the Quran looks at human beings as belonging to one community. It insinuates that God reserved uniting power regardless of the fact that He sent prophets to different communities separately. Sachedina looks at Islam as public religion stating that a religion’s basic beliefs forms an individual’s private face and are therefore subjective while religious practices coming from an individual’s beliefs form his or her public face collectively as well as individually therefore objective. Islam adherence however associates the private with the public in a way that an individual’s private life would be scrutinized in relation to its effect on public order (pg 295). Sachedina also states that Islam as the youngest Abrahamic tradition learnt from its predecessors as to treating minorities. Its self-understanding since inception has always incorporated an awareness of pluralism in religion as the foundation of its existence. In this case, it not only recognizes but also confirms salvific efficacy coming with pluralism (pg 296). These arguments are related in their inference of pluralism and their insinuation of Islam as recognizing and even supporting it.

Sachedina bases his argument heavily on the Quran stating that its principle of freedom of conscience justified interfaith relations in societies that were religiously plural. It obligated Muslims to recognize the salvific value held by other religions and work to a peaceful co-existence (pg 295). Sachedina states that politically motivated and spurious traditions (hadith) relating to early community was used in defending Islam as the only faith that would guarantee salvation. This excluded other religions and questioned their effectiveness in leading their followers to salvation (pg 299). Traditional Muslim Quran scholars tried to separate the community’s salvation history from the history of other faiths insisting that Islam was superior to Christianity and Judaism. The Muslim theologians devised methodological and terminological strategies to go round the verses in the Quran that underscored the salvific adequacy and authenticity to the other monotheistic traditions. Sachedina also borrows from the theological position of Mutazil pertaining to the human agency’s freedom to determine its spiritual destiny as desirable in enhancing peaceful coexistence (pg 304)

Sachedina acknowledges that his assertions would draw some objection more so from individuals who had accepted the supersession concept of the pre-Quranic revelations as depending on hadith drawing some support from the Quran Q3:85 which state that only Islam is acceptable to God (pg 302). This borrows on abrogation of earlier verses that may have supported the pluralism of religion.  Sachedina however refutes these claims stating that as much as the ecumenism spirit of the Quran was circumscribed through hermeneutics did not lose its possible effectiveness to maintain a good relationship with other religions (pg 303). He states that commitment to religious pluralism was expounded differently at varied times in the history of the Muslim community as it negotiated its association with the powers that held its destiny.

Conclusion

Sachedina convincingly shows that the Quran, Islam and Muslim community acknowledge the religious pluralism. It is only be acknowledging the universal nature of religion and he salvific adequacy and authenticity of other religions that peaceful co-existence amongst the various religions. While there may be scholars who hold the notion that Islam is the only true religion, Sachedina goes on to borrow from historical events and the Quran in an effort to demonstrate otherwise.

The quote “not only that religious beliefs lack rational support, but that they are positively irrational, that

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Philosophy

The quote “not only that religious beliefs lack rational support, but that they are positively irrational, that the several parts of the essential theological doctrine are inconsistent with one another” by Mackie provoked widespread debate on the topics about God and evil in the society.  Mackie argument is based on the argument that philosophical reasoning can be effectively applied to support God nonexistence’s logic.  A clear explanation of the ‘problem of evil’ can help support the claim. Mackie argued that the theological propositions about God’s omnipotent, wholly goodness and existence of some evil cannot all be true.  The two propositions given by Mackie are “if something is wholly good, it always eliminates as much evil as it can [and if something is omnipotent, it can do anything”.  These propositions deduce that beings can be free and always do what is right. Since God is viewed as all powerful and want free beings, it is likely that God could have not created a world with evil.  Mackie argued that to solve the problem of evil, one of the five arguments must be wrong and must be eliminated.  An adequate solution can be given from a theologian angle, arguing that God does not exist. The fallacious solutions would be to ignore the principles that cause the denial of God’s existence, and offer no response to the problem of evil.

The arguments by Macke are not right. From the arguments by Macke, it is logically possibly for God as omnipotent being to eliminate all the evils in the world. If this argument is deductively logical, the same God would have similar reasons to permit evil in the world.  The aim of God is to ensure prosperity and divine life of the beings.  The existence of evil in the society and the dilemma   in the   perceive inconsistencies in the explanations of the same can be looked at in terms of leaving or eliminating evil from the world. The elimination of evil from the world by God as proposed by Macke would come with some costs. Some goods would be lost in the process.

Free will should be allowed to prevail. The existence of evil in the world cannot be used to explain the existence or nonexistence of God. His existence is consistent with the very evil in the society. Mackie argument that solution is to deny God’ existence is subjective. It is logically possible for free beings to do good and wrong, sometimes. Allowing man to have the free will, freedom to choose and behave demonstrates God’s existence through His love for the man. The love in union depicts God’s love and expectation of man to be rational and make objective choices. God is believed to be mysterious yet caring. The existence of evil cannot be blamed on God, with reasons based on why He did permit it. Similarly, man’s inability to eliminate evil from the world cannot be blamed on some significant incapacity.

The ability of God to satisfy and meet his obligations shows his existence and moral perfection. Moral perfection of God can be deduced from his mercy and love. As the creator and all powerful, he is not obligated to act in a loving or merciful manner, more so in situations where he is expected to act as a morally perfect omnipotent.  From the Holy books, it is the ultimate aim and motivation of God to produce beings that are morally good. Producing   the morally good beings can only be achieved if the beings are free. The freedom of the creatures would grant them the free will to choose whether to reunite and love God or not. Such free actions can be done through the individual efforts of the efforts. The existence of free choices and God’s free hand in determine how the creatures behave explain why good and evil exist in the world.

The Quiet American, The book by Graham Greene

The Quiet American, The book by Graham Greene

Historical Context- The book by Graham Greene has focused on the Indochina War where political upheavals were taking place. The war took place between the years 1946 upto 1954. Westerners refer to this war as the First Indochina War and the Vietnamese refer to it as the Anti-French War. The characters in the novel were used as representatives of the existing political and national factions. The Americans were involved in the war, which was between the Vietminh, Communists and the French. At first, the Americans wanted to provide aid, but they found themselves engaging in other activities that were not part of their initial plans. The Domino Theory can explain why the Americans wanted to make their presence felt in the Indochina war. If the French were to succeed in taking over Vietnam, they would even decide to even conquer the other neighboring Asian countries. At the time, Ho Chi Minh was one of the Vietnamese leaders who wanted to gain power and lead his people. The French withdrew their forces from Vietnam after they were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. Also, the Geneva Accord ensured that the French would no longer colonize the Vietnamese people. Furthermore, the Geneva Accord ensured that a 17th Parallel existed and it would ensure that Vietnam would be divided into South and North Vietnam. Elections were even held in South Vietnam and Ngo Dinh Diem won, and unfortunately he was a ruthless leader who massacred many of his people. Luckily, in the year 1963, he was killed after a coup that was supported by the Americans.  It should be known that Chinese tactics were used by Ho Chi Minh and Giap in order to win the war. Therefore, the Vietnamese resorted to withdraw and head to the mountains, jungles and countryside so as to avoid battles that were decisive. On the other hand, the French resorted to using air supply lines and support, and artilley during the war. However, because of the support the Americans offered the Vietnamese, the latter were able to win the war. Greene wanted the world to know about what was going on in the war because he had first hand experience. Also, he had a close friend who gave him much of the needed information needed in writing the book ‘The Quiet American’. Indeed, the Indochina war will forever be remembered because an author such as Greene ensured that he would write about it.

Pyle-The ‘quiet American’ in the book is Pyle because he is from the United States and works for the CIA. This means that because of the nature of his job, he is meant to go unnoticed so as to spy for his country on what is taking place in Vietnam. He came to Vietnam during the beginning of the 1950’s as part of his country’s medical assistance team. Pyle is a character who will do anything for his country even if he knew that his life would be in danger since he was going to a country experiencing war. His main aim in being in Vietnam is to work as an undercover CIA agent. His other mission was to ensure that a certain splinter group in Vietnam was armed so that it could win the war and thus promote American interests. Pyle is truly a patriotic and loyal American who will do anything for his national interests. Pyle is described as being all American as his parents have both made outstanding contributions to the American society. Furthermore, Pyle wants to be like his parents and even contribute to the success of his country. It is not surprising that he wanted to become a member of the American ‘Third Force’. The French and the Americans have different cultures and the issue of doing what is write is quite different. For example, Fowler did not believe that the Third Force caused political obstructions. On the other hand, Pyle was a firm believer of the Third Force and the reason why he wanted to join it. People need to be fully aware of other people’s cultures so that they do not perceive and interpret things in the wrong manner. It is no wonder that Fowler was not able to understand the true nature and character of Pyle and thus the reason for thinking that he was naïve.

Phuong-Phuong was a beautiful and young Vietnamese woman who was also Fowler’s lover. She is often referred to a symbol of Vietnam as she often struggles to find protection and security. This is similar to all other people in Vietnam who wanted to form relations with the colonizers so that they could not suffer. Phuong took advantage of the fact that she was a beautiful woman in order to attract Fowler and Pyle and later, benefit from them.  She did not even mind the fact that in her society having two lovers is not condoned, but still went ahead with her relationship with the two men. According to her, the man who would provide the most benefit is the one that she would owe her loyalty to. Phuong’s character has not been fully developed as compared to other characters because you cannot really tell what she wants to do as most times and she does not display her emotions. Furthermore, her sister is the one who controls Phuong in every aspect of her life. She even goes to the extent of choosing for her a marriage partner who can be of benefit to both of them. Phuong’s sister does not want her to have a relationship with Fowler because he is an aethist and even has a wife back home. She prefers Phoung to be in a relationship with Pyle because he is unattached and has better future prospects. These are the reasons why Phuong’s character is not quite developed because she is acting as a link to other key characters in the quiet american. Lastly, Fowler and Pyle are different in their attitudes and actions towards Phuong. Fowler views her as a sexual object and takes her for granted, while according to Pyle; she is a delicate flower that has to be protected. This shows that most times men will have interest in a woman based upon how they view her. In this case, Pyler genuinely loved Phoung and had her best interests at heart, while Fowler only wanted a woman who would cater to his sexual needs for some time.

  1. Fowler-Thomas Fowler was a journalist from Britain who was in his fifties. He had gone to Vietnam to cover the on goings of the French war that was taking place in Vietnam for almost two years. Fowler is well informed about what is taking place in Vietnam because the British wanted to offer thier support to the French who are thier friends and neighbours. This proves that he is a representation of the Anglo-European colonialism as he wanted his countrymen to know what is taking place in Vietnam. It is evident that Fowler is a cynical and jaded man because of how he seems to behave in various situations. Fowler beleives that americans are the enemies and does not want any associations with them and this motivates him to get rid of any american that comes his way. In this case, Fowler is a self-fish man who only wants to benefit himself and his country without caring about other people’s feelings. Furthermore, throughout the entire book, it is evident that Fowler is caught up in his lies. At times, it is possible to claim that he is lying to himself based on his actions. He is even in a relationship with a young woman from Vietnam known as Phuong, who causes him to have many problems, yet he does not want to do anything concerning this issue. When Fowler and Alden Pyle meet, the first impression he has about him is that he is extremely naïve. It is no wonder that he does not share the same views as Pyle in many issues. Fowler believes that Pyle is not a genuine person who came to offer assistance to the people of  It is even the reason why that he carries out his investigations about Pyle and founds out that he is a CIA agent who is involved in the killing of innocent civilians.  Additionaly, the world view presented by Pyle is naive and unrealistic according to Fowler. He beleives that Pyle is an idealistic person who needs to stop following the doctrines of York Harding and come back to reality. Since Fowler is older than Pyle, he is more aware about what is taking place in the war and thus views Pyle as being ignorant.
  2. Pascal Wager- The key philosophical issue, which Greene is addressing in the quiet American, is that the United States is a materialistic society that wants to enforce its interests on other nations. It often wants to be known as being innocent, but this is not true since it keeps on interfering in the issues of other nations. Furthermore, according to Green, other nations are often not receptive when it comes to issues about the United States. On the other hand, Pascal Wager seems to concur with the notion presented by Greene concerning why Americans want to impose their culture and ideals on other nations. It is not surprising that Pyle and Fowler cannot relate to each other well because of their different ideals. Fowler has made it known that he will never accept of follow American ideals as he has his own. He thus even goes to the extent of making sure that Pyle will never have Phoung, and it reaches a point whereby he assassinates Pyle and this shows his extreme hatred for him. Therefore, the concept provided by Pascal Wagner has played a crucial role in helping understand how the two characters relate to each other.

The question of why customers lacked the latest movies

The question of why customers lacked the latest movies from Blockbuster was a ‘chase-away customers’ strategy. Other movie-renting companies could come in easily and take up the customers. Blockbuster realized that the straight-forward wholesale price contract that they used was the cause of this and thought of devising a new contract with their retailers, the revenue-sharing contract. Under this contract, the retailer makes two payments to the supplier; a subsidized wholesale price per unit and the percentage of the revenues collected per unit (Cachon and Lariviere, 2005). Initially, due to high wholesale price per unit involved, the retailers could not be able to fill the stores with the required stock. Revenue sharing contract made this possible. This contract worked very well in coordinating supply chain of many companies including the Blockbuster’s rivals, Hollywood Inc. Nevertheless, the contract was not universally applicable since it had some flaws. Revenue sharing contract was costly compared to the traditional straight-forward wholesale price contract since it involved extra administration costs on the side of the supplier and therefore lowered the supplier’s profit. This is because the supplier had to follow up on the retailing revenues to ascertain their revenues. Effective supply chain coordination is an important aspect in the market that, again, revenue sharing contract was unable to accomplish. It failed in this in two instances; in a market where there are many competitors supplying the market and revenues of one retailer is dependent on the activities of all competitors and in a situation where the efforts of the retailers, which cannot be contracted, influence the demand.

Due to these limitations, Blockbuster was left with the option of considering other strategic contracts like quantity discount contract and buy-back contract (Tsay, 1999). Quantity discount assures the supplier of profit regardless of quantity demanded unlike in the revenue sharing contract where the supplier has some risk. Buy-back contract helps in coordinating supply chain which is the ultimate goal in the market that assists in cost reduction. Thus it turns out to be the best since risk is shared and supply chain organized.

The Question Of Whether Life Has Meaning

The Question Of Whether Life Has Meaning

The question of whether life has meaning is difficult to answer. Two authors sought to have to explain the situation but given their differences in opinions, their explanations had some notable differences as well as similarities. According to Camus (579), all extraordinary deeds and all outstanding thoughts have a ridiculous beginning. In fact, life is formless, and absurdity brings happiness to the world. He pictures a man in a telephone conversation that is not possible to hear. He makes meaningless gestures that would amaze an observer. Taylor, on the other hand, acknowledges that in deed life has no meaning in a certain context. Only after the realization of their importance to man or the significance of their activities, that his life attains some form of meaning. Taylor and Camus present two conflict explanations on the question of life meaning but there are similarities existing ideas present in their explanations.

Both Camus and Taylor agree that to some extent life has no meaning. For instance, Camus argues that, “….and during every day of an unillustrious life, time carries us”. Camus explains that Sisyphus is an absurd hero. The gods condemn the man into rolling the stone up the hill. The measuring of this activity is through the depth of time and the outline of the sky. The activity will continue repeating itself without any definite timeline. According to Camus, this is the absurdity of the life of Camus. The hero will roll a stone that will afterwards roll back into its initial position requiring him to roll it up the hero again. There are no gains from the activity given that the rolling of the stones will not be beneficial to Sisyphus. Camus views this as absurd and compares it to the repetitive nature of the lives human beings lead.

Taylor recounts the case of Sisyphus according to Camus. Camus explains that the gods decided to punish Sisyphus by condemning him into rolling a heavy stone up a hill endlessly. Sisyphus rolls the stone up the hill but the stone rolls back into its initial location as if there had been no activity prior to that. The myth explains that he will roll the stone infinitely without an end. It further states that, despite the rolling he will undertake, his life does not amount into any meaning. This is because his task is difficult, endless, repetitive, and amounts to nothing. According to Kluge (70), “Nothing comes out of what he (Sisyphus) is doing expect simply, more of the same”. This according to Taylor is the state of meaningless in life. Taylor contrasts Camus in the case of meaningless deriving its definition from the task being difficult and tiresome. This is because even if the stone that Sisyphus was carrying were light, his life would still not amount to any meaning. Hence, the sole definition is meaningless if the activities of life do not amount into anything that is substantial.

One of the major differences between the views of meaningless in life is the issue of difficulty and repetitiveness of activities. Camus maintains that repetitive nature of activities, the activities having an indefinite timeline, and their difficulty makes life absurd. In fact, he states that, “the workman of today works every day in his life, in the same tasks, and his fate is no less absurd” (Camus 581). Taylor is careful and maintains that difficulty and repetitive nature of activities. In fact, according to him having activities amounting to nothing is the sole definition of meaningless. He maintains that given Sisyphus was condemned to a lighter stone this would not add meaning into his life. Again, if the activity were building a temple using the stones he ferried, it would mean that there would be no other activities after that. According to him, this would be endless boredom.

Taylor initially supports the idea that life has no meaning as explained by Camus at some instances but then considers ways that make life have meaning. He laments that if the previous generations were to resurrect and find archeologists looking for things they spent in their lifetime building, they would have a feeling that life has no meaning. Taylor first uses the way of life of the people in cities as an explanation of the idea of meaningless. Their destinations are to the coffee shop, offices, and schools to do activities that they had done yesterday so that they will do them tomorrow. They have a passion of engaging in these activities, and it is not about the structures they are building but rather the building itself. This is the point that Taylor uses to bring the aspect of meaning into absurdity (Kluge 90). According to the author, loving their activities has meaning regardless of the level of difficulty or the repetitive nature of those activities.

Two ways according to Taylor would add meaning into the otherwise meaningless life. If the stones that Sisyphus were carrying found the purpose of building something, then it would have a meaning. If according to Sisyphus the stones would assist in the building of a temple, then his life would have meaning. The other one is if the gods became merciful and allowed Sisyphus to love rolling the stone. His life could seem to have to meaning from the view of an outsider, but within him, it would not be meaningful. Endless nature is another reason for meaningless that Taylor cautions. Camus insists that since the activities are endless, then life has no meaning. Taylor, on the other hand, wonders if the stones Sisyphus rolled did build a temple for him, completion would not mean that his life has meaning. It would mean eternal boredom since he would have to stay in the temple doing nothing. Taylor, therefore, insists incase the activity has meaning, or if Sisyphus loves the activity, then his life would have meaning.

Accordingly, both Taylor and Camus agree that life has no meaning. There are differences that exist though there is the acknowledgement of some similarities. Taylor discounts the account by Taylor that life has no meaning because activities are difficult, infinite, and repetitive. Taylor insists that life having no meaning amounts from the dislike of the activities involved and lack of any credible outcomes. In addition, Taylor succeeds in explaining that life will have meaning with slight alterations to the activities. One of the alterations necessary is if individuals will have a passion for their activities. In addition, if those individual have a belief that those activities will amount to something that is substantial. In accordance to arguments presented by both authors, they have both agree on the meaningless account of life. Taylor, in addition, accounts that if there are alterations made to the original activities then there is the meaning in an individual’s life.

Work Cited

Camus, Albert. The myth of Sisyphus, and other essays. New York: Vintage Books, 1983.

Kluge, Eike-Henner W. The practice of death. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.