Analysis On How Violence In The Media Contributes

Analysis On How Violence In The Media Contributes


The media is generally seen by people as a way of conveying the truth .if something is seen on TV, has been heard on the radio or something has been read in the newspapers then it is perceived as being the truth. Throughout history the media has been used as a tool to convey different messages to people. The issue of the behavior of children when they have been exposed to violence is media has been an issue to be debated upon and studied for a very long time.there is many devices that children have a hold of nowadays this include video games, iPods, ipads, DVDs, computers and so on. Children are often said to be impressionable, this means that they do not see the world in the same way as adults do. Children tend to see things just the way they are. They take things literally as they do not posses the sensibilities that are sophisticated to make a distinction between reality and fiction (Limit TV, 2010). It is therefore a matter of great importance how much of media children are exposed to and what exactly they are viewing through the media. The issue of violence is not anew thing it is an increasing problem in the society. The causes of violence in children are seen to be multifactorial and exposure of children to media violence is said to be an important factor when it comes to the etiology of behaviors that are violent in children.

There are a lot of violent behaviors that are being shown in the media this include movies with a lot of fighting, video games that are made of fights and also strong abusive language. Due to the nature of children to emulate what they se it is often argued that they pick up and try to copy what they see in the media in real life. This therefore means that what a child sees has a role to play when it comes to how they behave towards others.

Importance of analysis

The overall analysis on how violence in the media contributes to violent behavior in children is significant not only to children but to both the parents and children in the society. It is evidenced that, violence in media leads to violent behavior in children and this has been an issue which has been affecting many families across the world. The makers of media which include movies, video as well as televisions are some of the violent media entertainments in which violent children are drawn towards (Tompkins, 2003).  The affected families argue that children should be exposed to more than just programming to enable them exhibit behaviors that is seen in the media. However some people argue that, the real effect is small that one hypothesis may suggest an exposure to violent media that provides healthy release for the frightening emotions of the children and the young adults. Therefore the analysis of how violence in the media contributes to violent behavior in children will create awareness to the families that will help them to tackle the issue.

Research Questions

The research carried out will answer various questions regarding how violence in the media contributes to violent behavior in children. For instance, the research will answer questions such as; if it is true that violence in media are the main contributors to violent behavior in children. The findings will be found from a research made from children who happen to be taking a lot of their time watching movies. Another question that will be answered in this research is whether policies should be put by the government to curb the issue. There are so many questions that will be answered involving the effects of media not only to children but to the whole people across the globe as well as whether the media types are the only cause of children committing violent acts (Tompkins, 2003).


Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from

Hermes, A. (2011). Children’s Exposure to TV Violence & Aggressive Behavior. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from

Limit TV. (2010). Media Violence and Behavior. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from

Tompkins, A. (2003). The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children .Retrieved march 25, 2013

Tompkins, A. (2003). The Psychological Effects of Violent Media on Children. Psychology Classroom at AllPsych Online. Retrieved March 25, 2013, from

Williams, C. (2011). Does Media Violence Affect Children’s Behavior? Retrieved March 25, 2013 from

Analysis of: Martin J., 2008. Human Resource Management. Publisher SAGE.

Analysis of: Martin J., 2008. Human Resource Management. Publisher SAGE.

Human Resource Management is a credible book aimed at explaining main HRM concepts and improving the reader’s perceptions on Human Resource management. The book is rather unique as it further provides assistance to students on how to prepare for examinations and how to write assessed materials. Through the book, Martin encourages readers not to have a narrow-minded thinking rather to think critically about the subject and how to respond to examination questions. This book is critical as it compliments other materials and books used by students in their course work.

Among the main ideas as presented in the books are:

  1. Easy access to the main themes in Human Resource management.
  2. The book summarizes the strategies applied by various materials, especially course books, and the strengths of the approaches as well as their weaknesses.
  • The book is essential as it provides guidance on the skills needed for effective study.
  1. To better help learners understand how to present their answer and approach a given question, the book provides sample questions and answers.

In comparison with other materials, this book is better. The book does not only give notes or explain given concepts but also contain practice questions and answers essential for student’s personal development. It therefore bridges the gap between knowledge and presentation of answers or answering examination questions.

In my personal opinion, this book is essential not only for providing reader various notes on HRM but also helps the student understand how to handle examination questions. The book is student-centered.




  1. Executive summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………3
  2. Business description…………………………………………………………………………………………………….4

2.1. Company overview……………………………………………………………………………….4

2.2. Product Description………………………………………………………………………………4

2.3. Ownership structure………………………………………………………………………………4

2.4. Suppliers………………………………………………………………………………………………5

2.5. Legal consideration……………………………………………………………………………….5

2.6. Goals……………………………………………………………………………………………………5


2.8. Suppliers………………………………………………………………………………………………6

  1. Business Opportunities…………………………………………………………………………………8
    • ……………………………………………………………………………………………..8
    • Competitor and SWOT analysis………………………………………………………………………….9
  2. Marketing strategy……………………………………………………………………………………..10
    • Market sigmentation……………………………………………………………………………10
    • Costing………………………………………………………………………………………………11
    • Segmentation, targeting and positioning…………………………………………………13
    • Marketing mix…………………………………………………………………………………….14
      • …………………………………………………………………………………..14
      • Price………………………………………………………………………………………..14
      • Process…………………………………………………………………………………….15
      • People……………………………………………………………………………………..15
      • Promotion………………………………………………………………………………..15
    • Sales projection…………………………………………………………………………………..15
  3. Business Operations…………………………………………………………………………………..16
    • Service offered……………………………………………………………………………………16
    • Operational personnel………………………………………………………………………….16
  4. Technology………………………………………………………………………………………………17
  5. Financial Plan……………………………………………………………………………………………18
    • Financial system feasibility…………………………………………………………………..18
    • Financial plan……………………………………………………………………………………..18
  6. References………………………………………………………………………………………………..21
  7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………25





  1. Executive summary

Distance between coffee shop “Richwoman” and the London Metropolitan University is about 1200 square foot. According to Canlas, 28 525 students, 2400 academic staff of Metropolitan University will be customer of Richwoman (Canlas, 2011).

The owners have secured this location through a three-year lease with an option for extending. The have also provided £140000 of the required £170000 start-up funds. The remaining capital will be obtained through Barclays commercial loans.

Richwoman is registered as a Limited Liability Corporation in London. Zhanylsyn Izmagambetova owns 55 % of shares of this firm. Her friends, Arman, as well as Sholpan Izmagambetova and Anargul Izmagambetova hold the remaining part of shares of Richwoman, LLC.

Financing for the firm comes from two sources- bank loans and owners’ money. Two major holders, Zhanylsyn Izmagambetova and Aiman Izmagambetova, have contributed £70000 and £30000 respectively. All other investors have contributed £40000, which brings the total investments to £140000. The remaining £30000 needed to cover the start-up expenses and assets came from the two bank loans-a one-year loan in the amount of £10000 and a long-term loan of £20,000. Both loans were secured through the Barclays. Thus, total start-up loss is assumed in the amount of £27680. (Barclays, Loans, Followed by URL: Retrieved on 30.09.2012).

  1. Business description

2.1. Company overview

Coffee shop “Richwoman” will open 2013 year, like London limited liability company and will sell coffee, other beverages and snacks in its 1200 square feet premium coffee shop located near the London Metropolitan University campus.  Richwoman’s major investors are Zhanylsyn Izmagambetova and Aiman Izmagambetova who cumulatively hold over 70% of the firm. The start-up expense of the firm is expected in the amount of $27680.

2.2. Product Description

The menu of the Richwoman coffee shop will be built around espresso-based coffee drinks such as amiricano, cappuccinos, lattes, mochas, etc. Each of the espresso-based drinks will be ordered with whole, skimmed, or soy milk. Each of coffee beverages is based on a ‘shot’ of espresso beverage, which is made in the espresso machine by forcing heated water through ground coffee at high pressure. Such espresso shots are combined with steamed milk or other additives like caramel, cocoa, etc., to prepare the espresso-based beverages. Proper training methods are of paramount importance for these drinks. A slight deviation from the amount of coffee in the shot, the size of the coffee particles, the temperature of milk, etc., can negatively affect the quality of the prepared drink (Nagaraj, 2009).



Figure 1. Richwoman’s products (Richwoman 2012)

2.3. Ownership structure

Figure 2: Company’s management structure.

Richwoman is registered as a Limited Liability Corporation in London. Zhanylsyn Izmagambetova owns 51% of the company. Her cousin, Aiman, as well as Sholpan Izmagambetova and Anargul Izmagambetova hold minority stakes in Richwoman, LLC. We registered like Limited Liability Corporation in Companies House.

2.4. Company’s mission

Richwoman will become the foremost coffee shop in the area. We will serve a perfect product at a very reasonable price. We will also be a place of meeting for artists and writers and a place for them to show off their work. We will create a climate conducive to creative expression and promote the creative process. (Botterill, 2011)

2.5. Legal consideration

When ordering coffee beverages in a coffee shop the customer is agreeing to pay for food, drink and service. This creates a contract to which the supply of products and Services Act 1982 applies.

This act does not apply in the UK. Even though, the parts of the 1982 Act giving rights to consumers for goods supplied alongside services (as opposed to the services themselves) DO apply in the UK. Additionally, UK common law offers similar protection.

2.6. Goals

Richwoman’s goals for the first year of operations are:

  • Become selected as the “Best New Coffee Bar in the London Metropolitan College’s area” by the local restaurant guide.
  • Acquire equipment necessary for business, i.e. coffee pots, cappuccino machines, blenders, etc.
  • Make agreement with coffee distributors, and bakery vendors.
  • Create a cozy, artist friendly environment (i.e. choice of colors, choice of music, decor)
  • Maintain a 70% gross margin.
  • Turn in profits from the first month of operations. (Wentz, 2007)

Keys to Success

The keys to success will be:

  • Store design that will be both visually attractive to customers, and designed for fast and efficient operations.
  • Employee training to insure the best coffee preparation techniques (Wentz, 2007).
  • Marketing strategies aimed to build a solid base of loyal customers, as well as maximizing the sales of high margin products, such as espresso drinks.

Vision and Mission

Richwoman will become the foremost coffee shop in the area. We will serve a perfect product at a very reasonable price. We will also be a meeting place for artists and writers and a place for them to show off their work. We will create an atmosphere conducive to creative expression and promote the creative process. (Botterill, 2011)

2.7. Products

Richwoman will offer its clients the best tasting coffee beverages in the region. This will be achieved by using high-quality ingredients and strictly following preparation guidelines. The store design, marketing activities and menu listings will be focused on maximizing the sales of higher margin espresso drinks. Along with the espresso drinks, brewed coffee and teas, as well as some refreshment beverages, will be sold in the coffee bar. Richwoman will also offer its customers pastries, small sandwiches and salads. For the gourmet customers that prefers to prepare its coffee at home, Richwoman will also be selling coffee beans. “Richwoman” coffee shop will use menu of Starbucks in future (Menu of Starbucks, Followed by URL:

The menu offerings will be supplemented by free books and magazines that customers can read inside the coffee shop.

Product Description

Accoording to Nagaraj (2009), the menu of the Richwoman coffee shop will be built around espresso-based coffee drinks such as amiricano, cappuccinos, lattes, mochas, etc. Each of the espresso-based drinks will be offered with whole, skimmed, or soy milk. Each of these coffee beverages is based on a ‘shot’ of espresso, which is made in the espresso machine by forcing heated water through ground coffee at high pressure. Such espresso shots are combined with steamed milk and/or other additives like caramel, cocoa, etc., to prepare the espresso-based beverages. Proper training methods are of paramount importance for such drinks. A minor deviation from the amount of coffee in the shot, the size of the coffee particles, the temperature of milk, etc., can negatively affect the quality of the prepared drink.

Sales advertising

Three thousand advertisement will be distributed on the Metropolitan University campus, at the malls and in the selected office buildings within one month prior to the opening of Richwoman by Distribution Company. Subsequently, free postcards with Richwoman endorsement will be printed to increase the company visibility among the patrons.

2.8. Suppliers

Coffee shop “Richwomen” is a trusted and welcoming company for suppliers. (Owsik, 2011). Through his supplier diversity program, it works to increase his business relationships with minority- and women-owned suppliers.

Richwoman is dedicated to creating a workplace that values and respects people from diverse backgrounds, and enables its employees to do their best work. This coffee shop honor the unique combination of talents, experiences and perspectives of each partner, making Richwoman success possible.

As such Richwomen expect his partners to act with a spirit of kinship, tolerance and humanity toward all customers making his stores welcoming to everyone (Owsik, 2011).

  1. Business Opportunities

3.1. Location

Figure 3. Location of Richwoman

Figure 4. Geographic area

“Richwoman coffee” bar will be located on the first floor of the commercial building at the 231 Holloway road, London, the United Kingdom (Dobbin C, 2012). Richwoman has rented a one-year lease of the vacant 1500 square feet premises previously occupied by a beauty salon “Alternatives”.

The lease contract has an option of renewal for three years at a fixed rate that Richwoman will execute depending on the financial feasibility of its business.

The floor plan will include a 300 square feet back coffee shop office and a 1300 square feet coffee bar, which will include a seating area with 14 tables, a big kitchen, storage area and three bathrooms. The space in the coffee bar will be approximately distributed the following way-1100 square feet (i.e., 55% of the total) for the seating area, 500 square feet (26%) for the area of production, and the last 330 square feet (19%) for the area of customer service.

This property is located in a commercial area within a walking distance from the London Metropolitan University campus on the corner of a major thoroughfare connecting affluent Camden Town neighborhood with the busy downtown commercial area. The commercially zoned premises have the necessary water and electricity hookups and will require only minor remodeling to accommodate the espresso bar, kitchen and storage area (Dobbin C, 2012).

The coffee shop’s open and clean interior design with modern wooden decor will convey the quality of the served beverages and snacks, and will be in-line with the establishment’s positioning as an eclectic place where people can relax and enjoy their cup of coffee. The clear window displays, through which passerby will be able to see customers enjoying their drinks, and outside electric signs will be aimed to capture the attention of the customer traffic.

3.2. Competitor and SWOT analysis

Competitor analysis

Competitors Strengths Weaknesses
Café Nero ·         Caffe Nero always pays more attention when selecting sites in order to create a disciplined environment.

·         It has ability to capture and rise its market share day by day.

·         The company has opportunity to open a new store every week.

·         It has high quality management and well check and balance system which is also used for the analysis of employees as well as outlets.

·         It is dependent only on its main product, the retail of coffee, which is not enough for it to diversify and compete in other sectors.

·         Aggressive expansion may lead to managerial and financial problems.

Costa ·   Costa is famous brand which is associated with high quality

·   Company well trained and treated employees.


·         Prices are high which are suitable for middle to high income clients

·         Coffee quality is not as good as reputation

·         Company has aggressive expansion

·         Their products are unhealthy products.

Starbucks ·         Starbucks Corporation is a very profitable organization, earning in excess of $600 million in 2004.The company generated revenue of more than $5000 million in the same year.

·         It is a global coffee brand built upon a reputation for fine products and services. It has almost 9000 cafes in almost 40 countries.

·         Starbucks was one of the Fortune Top 100 Companies to Work For in 2005. The company is a respected employer that values its workforce.

·         The organization has strong ethical values and an ethical mission statement as follows, ‘Starbucks is committed to a role of environmental leadership in all facets of our business.

·         Starbucks has a reputation for new product development and creativity. However, they remain vulnerable to the possibility that their innovation may falter over time.

·         Starbucks Corporation is a very profitable organization, earning in excess of $600 million in 2004.The company generated revenue of more than $5000 million in the same year.

·         It is a global coffee brand built upon a reputation for fine products and services. It has almost 9000 cafes in almost 40 countries.

SWOT Analysis


  • Based on its smaller size, the fact that it is not a franchise, the Richwoman is a unique coffee shop concept unlike any other in the Holloway road.
  • The owner has firsthand experience, in operating and starting new restaurants.
  • Handpicked baristas will bring professionalism and enthusiasm to the shop.
  • Strong relationships with third party vendors.
  • The structured conversation system (Stanworth, 2004)


  • Franchises are the easiest way and often the safest conduit to start a café; the café will not have the backing of one of these established entities.
  • The Richwoman has a minimal budget and is competing against larger and more established coffeehouses for market share.


  • The Holloway road demographics support the need for a unique coffee shop.
  • Additional opportunities to target the active and recently retired target market and 45 years+ age group.
  • A small slice of a much bigger pie is the goal. Only 40 percent of the nation’s coffee drinkers are consuming premium ground and whole bean coffee. Encouraging coffee drinkers to become coffee connoisseurs is the key to continued growth.
  • The ability to lower variable costs through efficiency gains.
  • Increasing sales opportunities as people become familiar with the advantages of the structured conversation system (Abdullah & Rajgopal 2003).


  • Competition from taverns.
  • Competition from other sources of singles meeting events.
  • A slump in the economy which will decrease discretionary spending.
  1. Marketing strategy

4.1. Market sigmentation

Richwoman will strive to build a loyal customer base by offering a great tasting coffee in a  relaxing environment of its coffee bar located close to the bustling Metropolitan University campus. Richwoman will concentrate its marketing activities on reaching the University students and faculty, people working in offices located close to the coffee bar and on sophisticated teenagers. Our market research shows that these are the customer groups that are most likely to buy gourmet coffee products (McDonald, Dunbar, 1998).

Since gourmet coffee consumption is universal across different income categories and mostly depends on the level of higher education, proximity to the Metropolitan University campus will provide access to the targeted customer audience.

The chart and table below outline the total market potential (in number of customers) of gourmet coffee drinkers in London, the UK.

Market Analysis
    Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5  
Potential Customers Growth           CAGR
Students and Faculty 2% 18000 18360 18727 19102 19484 2.00%
Teenagers 1% 3000 3030 3060 3091 3122 1.00%
Office workers 2% 8000 8160 8323 8489 8659 2.00%
Other 0% 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 0.00%
Total potential customers 1.63% 34000 34550 35110 35682 36265 1.63%
  • Costing

The major two sources-owners’ investments and bank loans are used as the finance of a firm. Two major owners, Zhanylsyn and Aiman, have contributed £70000 and £30000 respectively. All other investors have contributed £40000, which brings the total investments to £140000. The remaining £30,000 needed to cover the start-up expenses and assets came from the two bank loans-a one-year loan in the amount of £10000 and a long-term (five years) loan of £20,000. Barclays Bank has secured both the loans, thus, total start-up loss is assumed in the amount of £27680.

Start-up expenses


Expenses £
Legal, accounting service expenses 1300
Marketing promotion, as well as printing 3580
Consultants fees 3000
Insurance(general liability, workers compensation 2400
Pre-paid rent expenses for 1 month(£1.76 per sq/f 4400
Premises remodelling. 10000
Other start-up expenses (stationary, phone, utility) 3000
Total start-up expenses 27680










Required start up assets

Operating capital: 67123
employees, owner’s salaries (2 months) 23900
cash reserves(first 3months of operation 43223
Start-up inventory: 16027
Coffee beans (12 regular, 5 decaffeinated brands) 6000
Coffee filters, baked goods, sandwiches, tea,etc. 7900
Retail supplies (napkins, coffee bags, cleaning, etc.) 1840
Office supplies 287
Equipment: 59170
Espresso machine 6000
Coffee maker 900
Coffee grinder 200
Food service equipment(microwave, toasters, etc) 18000
Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, etc.) 3720
Counter area equipment (counter top, sink, etc.) 9500
Serving area equipment (plates, glasses, flatware) 3000
Store equipment (cash register, security, etc) 13750
Office equipment (PC, fax/printer, phone, etc) 3600
Other miscellaneous expenses 500
Total required start up assets 142320

Total Funding

Start-up Funding
Start-up Expenses to Fund 27680
Start-up Assets to Fund 142320
Total Funding Required 170000

Balance sheet

Non-cash Assets from Start-up 75197
Cash Requirements from Start-up 67123
Additional Cash Raised 0
Cash Balance on Starting Date 67123
Total Assets 142320
Liabilities and Capital
Current Borrowing 10000
Long-term Liabilities 20000
Accounts Payable (Outstanding Bills) 0
Other Current Liabilities (interest-free) 0
Total Liabilities 30000
Planned Investment
Zhanylsyn 70000
Aiman 30000
All other investors 40000
Additional Investment Requirement 0
Total Planned Investment 140000
Loss at Start-up (Start-up Expenses)
Total Capital 112320
Total Capital and Liabilities 142320
  • Segmentation, targeting and positioning
Targeting Explanation
Geographic Urbanization: concentrating on London city

Climate: temperate oceanic climate

Demographics 1) Age group: Young adults

Nice place to relax, chat, chilly music

Trendy coffees which present their lifestyle.

2) Age group: Middle age

Place to calm down, relax, chat, read a book

Possibility for a small (healthy) snack with a great coffee.

Occupation: students and youngsters, professionals, families, mature consumers

Social class: Middle Class, Upper Middle Class, Privileged Class

Behaviour User frequency: 1-3 times per year

Occasions: Christmas, New Year’s Eve

Phychographic 1) Coffee lovers

Trendy, fresh, high quality, new developed coffee (some: fairtrade)

2) Atmosphere lovers

A great third place

Richwoman product’s price is high, because it has higher labour cost working in London and higher facility cost (Kotlet et al. 2009).

  • Marketing mix
    • Product
Coffee and Teas Refreshing Alternatives Eatables
Coffee with Milk Smoothies Sandwiches

Caffe Mocha

Caffe Latte




Paneer Tikka

Cheese and Tomato

Chicken Tikka

Smoked Chicken

Black Coffee Granitas Rolls




Blue Curacao

Lime Ice

Mixed Fruit


Guava Crush

Kadhai Paneer


Chicken Masala


Dessert Coffees Milk Based Pastas
Latte Bianco

Caffe Borgia



Mocha Freeze


Tangy Tomato


Creamy Chicken


Cold Coffees Iced Tea Hot tea



Richwoman Blast

Iced Caffe








Earl Grey

Coffee Add-ons Other Drinks Desserts








Ice Cream


Ginger Fizz

Kinley Water

Walnut Brownie

Mocha Excess



Dark Temptation



Chocolate Chip


Almond Raisin

Apple Cake


4.4.2. Price

Richwoman has a ‘Skim Pricing Policy’. They began with a higher price, and skimmed the cream for the market. With the sudden spurt of growth in number of outlets, came the benefits of economies of scale. Because of this, they have been able to gradually lower their prices, and appeal to different segments of their target market. Currently, their prices are the lowest they have ever been, and they can competitively match their pricesagainst Costa’s prices. The prices are constantlychanging though, and the last 1-year has seen 3 changes (mostlyreductions) in prices. This gradual price reduction meant that Richwoman could maintain its profit- maximization policy until it could earn large cost savings because of the benefits of high volume. The main factors that affect their pricing are their cost of goodssold (Belohlavek 2008).The costs are quite high because imports a majority of its products and product. Considering that Richwoman is trying to target a market whose age range is between 18 and 60 years, a pricing policy appealing to this segment is difficult. Extremely low prices act as a deterrent to some customers who might regard it as an indicator or quality, while very high prices cannot be afforded bymost of the youth. But since Richwoman’s current consumer profile is quite young, their prices are mostly inexpensive, and at par with their competitors

4.4.3. Process

The order and delivery process at Richwoman is based on self- service, where a customer goes up to the counter to place his order, and goes back to the counter to pick his delivery once it is prepared.

4.4.4. People

The people at Richwoman are characteristically trained to be Pleasant, Polite and Positive. (Lawrence, 2011). They ensure you have a quiet, uninterrupted visit and provide an escape from the daily pressures of life. Their uniforms are in sober shades of brown and orange, and contribute to the overall laid-back feeling of the cafe.

4.4.5. Promotion

According to research, over 65% of Richwoman’s clients are in the 15- 30 age- group. The majority of these are students of London Metropolitan University. Richwoman positions itself as a brand for anyone who loves coffee. Their products, services and outlets are more like the traditional European cafés, wherepeople would meet for the love of coffee, and for an intellectual appealing time. They position their outlets as a place “where the world meets”, and they look to appeal to anyone in the 14- 60 age group that loves good coffee and looks for a nice quiet time (Belohlavek 2008).

4.5. Sales projection

The sales transactions will be handled by Richwoman baristas. To speed up the customer service, at least two employees will be servicing clients-while one employee will be preparing the customer’s order, the other one will be taking care of the sales transaction. All sales data logged on the computerized point-of-sale terminal will be later analyzed for marketing purposes. Richwoman will use the banners and flyers to use customer testimonials and cross-promotions with other companies in the society in order to increase their customer base. (Ligus, 1993)

Food expenses are assumed at 25% for coffee beverages and 50% for retail beans and pastries (Lawrence, 2011). Certain sales seasonality will be dictated with revenues slightly decreasing during the school vacation periods by proximity to the London Metropolitan University campus.

Sales Forecast £    
  Year 1  Year 2  Year 3
Coffee beverages 350400 385440 423984
Coffee beans 87600 96360 105996
Pastries, etc. 146000 160600 176660
Total Sales 584000 642000 706640
Direct Cost of Sales  Year 1  Year 2  Year 3
Coffee beverages 87600 96360 105996
Coffee beans 43800 48180 52998
Pastries, etc. 73000 80300 88330
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales 204400 224840 247324
  1. Business Operations

5.1. Service offered

Although the product description and 4Ps are fully described in the above sections, the company also provides some services for its enhance the reputation. Specifically, there will be 24/7 hotline contact so that any complaints will be replied by employees immediately. Also, listening to customer’s opinions is very important in order to develop a business, thus any feedback from customers are welcomed. Customers can send feedback by submitting a form in the company’s website or registered for feedback form at the stores, and all opinions will be listened by customer services department. In brief, apart from providing consumers products with highest quality, Richwoman also concentrates on improving its customer service which enhances the customer’s value (Maull, Childe, Bennet, Weaver, Smart, 1995).

5.2. Operational personnel

  • Miss Zhanylsyn Izmagambetova

Miss Zhanylsyn Izmagambetova holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Finance from Kazakh-British Technical University. She’s worked for several years as bank officer in Tsesna Bank in Kazakhstan.

  • Miss Aiman

Miss Aiman has extensive business contacts in London that he will leverage to help his new venture succeed.

  • Miss Sholpan

Miss Sholpan has a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology from the City of London University. For the last five years he has worked as a manager of DEF Ristorante, a successful Italian restaurant in London, the UK. Under Miss Sholpan’s management, the restaurant has consistently increased sales while maintaining a lower than average level of operating expenses.

However, because of the investors’ other commitments they will not be involved into the daily management decisions at Richwoman. A professional manager ($35000/yr) will be hired who will oversee all the coffee bar operations. Two full-time baristas ($25000/yr each) will be in charge of coffee preparation. Four more part-time employees will be hired to fulfill the staffing needs. In the second and third year of operation one more part-time employee will be hired to handle the increased sales volume.

  1. Technology

1) Food service equipment

The technology Richwoman is dependant upon is the micro-roasting equipment it will use to roast the beans on-site. This equipment is serviced through the supplier; Espresso Services, Inc. Richwoman will also use our website to advertise specials and events, and to post the monthly menu and talent offerings. We will use email to communicate with customers wishing to sign-up for email specials. Eventually, we would like to institute online ordering for roasted coffee and specialty merchandise, but that plan is at least two years off.

  1. The Point of Sale

The Point of Sale (POS) technology Richwoman will use allows for order taking when the lines are long, keeps customer discount information, inventory, and revenue/profit information. The system has a battery back-up in case of power surges and temporary power losses (Krogstie 2007).The Richwoman’ s logo will be Federally Trademarked. Although the beverages will not be protected in content, beverage names for specialty drinks reflecting the theme of the shop will be protected under the Federal Trademark laws.

The security system Inspirational Grounds uses will protect the contents of the store and reduce insurance premiums.

  1. 3. Espresso machine and coffee grinder

Espresso machine is one of the most important things to have in your coffee shop. In buying an espresso machine, you should make sure that you get one for decaf and one for regular espresso. You can get a manual, semi-automatic, automatic, or super automatic, depending on the abilities of your barista. Another important equipment is coffee grinder. Having this enables you to grind different types of coffee for the various tastes of people. Get different machines for decaf and regular coffee (Oliver 2007).

  1. Coffee maker and blender

Coffee maker equipment makes it possible to make freshly brewed cups of coffee for your customers. It is one of the core equipment that you should have. Purchase a coffee maker that fits the size and capacity of your coffee shop. Other important technology in Richwoman is blender. Company needs this equipment to be able to make different types of coffee based drinks or others. Make sure that it is powerful enough since company is going to use this often.

  1. Refrigerator and freezer

Of course, you need storage space to keep all of your ingredients fresh for consumption. Like the other equipment, buy these according to the size of your coffee shop and the food and drinks that you will offer (Krogstie 2007). There are also other equipment that you need to have if company is going to start Richwoman but these are the key ones that coffee shop should have. For great deals, you can search Amazon for great coffee shop equipment to get company’s coffee shop business up and running.

  1. Financial Plan

7.1. Financial system feasibility

Coffee shop “Richwoman” will capitalize on the strong demand for high-quality gourmet coffee. The owners have provided the company with sufficient start-up capital. With successful management aimed at establishing and growing a loyal customer base, the company will see its net worth doubling in two years. Richwoman will maintain a healthy 65% gross margin, which combined with reasonable operating expenses, will provide enough cash to finance further growth.

7.2. Financial plan

  1. Cash flow statement
(£) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Cash Received      
Cash from Operations
Cash Sales 584000 642400 706640
Subtotal Cash from Operations 584000 642400 706640
Additional Cash Received
Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received 0 0 0
New Current Borrowing 0 0 0
New Other Liabilities (interest-free) 0 0 0
New Long-term Liabilities 0 0 0
Sales of Other Current Assets 0 0 0
Sales of Long-term Assets 0 0 0
New Investment Received 0 0 0
Subtotal Cash Received 584000 642400 706640
Expenditures Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Expenditures from Operations
Cash Spending 124600 143800 155144
Bill Payments 327865 388715 420945
Subtotal Spent on Operations 452465 532515 576089
Additional Cash Spent
Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out 0 0 0
Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing 3300 3300 3300
Other Liabilities Principal Repayment 0 0 $0
Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment 0 3585 3961
Purchase Other Current Assets 0 0 0
Purchase Long-term Assets 0 2000 2000
Dividends 0 0 0
Subtotal Cash Spent 455765 541400 585350
Net Cash Flow 128235 101000 121290
Cash Balance 195358 296358 417648
  1. Income statement

Annual projected sales of £584000 in 2013 year (yr.) translate into £254.00 of sales per square foot, which is in line with the industry averages for this size of coffee bar. Overall, as the company gets established in the local market, its net profitability increases from 17.06% in 2013 yr. to 17.63% in 2015 yr. The table below outlines the projected Profit and Loss Statement for 2013-2015 years.

Income statemet
£ Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Sales 584000 642400 706640
Direct Cost of Sales 204400 224840 247324
Other 0 0 0
Total Cost of Sales 204400 224840 247324
Gross Margin 379600 417560 459316
Gross Margin % 65.00% 65.00% 65.00%
Payroll 124600 143800 155144
Sales and Marketing and Other Expenses 25800 27600 31000
Depreciation 5400 5500 5500
Rent 48400 52800 52800
Rent 6000 6000 6000
Maintenance 5840 6424 7066
Utilities/Phone 9000 9500 10000
Payroll Taxes 18690 21570 23272
Other 0 0 0
Total Operating Expenses 243730 273194 290782
Profit Before Interest and Taxes 135870 144366 168534
EBITDA 141270 149866 174034
Interest Expense 2821 2326 1618
Taxes Incurred 33740 35510 42424
Net Profit 99308 106530 124491
Net Profit/Sales 17.00% 16.58% 17.62%
  1. Balance sheet
Balance Sheet
£ Year 1  Year 2  Year 3
Current Assets
Cash 195358 296358 417648
Inventory 21175 23293 25622
Other Current Assets 0 0 0
Total Current Assets 216533 319651 443270
Long-term Assets
Long-term Assets 59170 61170 63170
Accumulated Depreciation 5400 10900 16400
Total Long-term Assets 53770 50270 46770
Total Assets 270303 369921 490040
Liabilities and Capital
Current Liabilities    
Accounts Payable 31974 31947 34836
Current Borrowing 6700 3400 100
Other Current Liabilities 0 0 0
Subtotal Current Liabilities 38674 35347 34936
Long-term Liabilities 20000 16415 12454
Total Liabilities 58674 51762 47390
Paid-in Capital 140000 140000 140000
Retained Earnings -27680 71628 178159
Earnings 99308 106530 124491
Total Capital 211628 318159 442650
Total Liabilities and Capital 270303 369921 490040






Student’s Name



Analysis of Two Main Books about Women’s movements in Uganda during the late 20th century

Introduction and Context

Women movements in Uganda are diverse, vibrant and very active.  Since 1989 women in Uganda have held important posts in the government as well as comprising about 18% of members of parliament[1] (Austen, 2002). Either, women in Uganda participate in various locally initiate women’s organization. In addition to this a third of positions available in Uganda’s local council systems are set aside for women.

In the 1990’s a greater number of African women began to aspire for political leadership both in national and local levels. Their impact was still low and they faced daunting obstacles. However notwithstanding this, new women voices and faces started to be seen and heard. This decade marked the entry of women in politics and there is greater indication for a lot of pressure to increase women representation and participation (Tripp, n.d). In this period  it is observed that women movements that were once involved in developmental activities concerned with income generation, welfare and home making skills started lobbying for women’s political leadership, legislative and constitutional changes as well as conducting civic education.

Women in the 1990s began to form their own political parties partly because the existing ones in the multiparty context were not addressing the issues of concern to women. According to trip women had diverse political visions that were not accommodated in the existing parties. In addition to this they wanted their parties to be broad based in multiethnic as well as multi-religious constituents in contrast to the existing parties. This development was occasioned by the reluctance of the existing parties to take steps that would raise the representation of women. Women’s movements are rarely mentioned in the democratization studies in Africa, but in actual sense they actively advocated to participate in political reform movements of 1990s. In many cases they found themselves as the only groups that were defying oppressive regimes (Goetz, 2002).

A combination of factors can be attributed to the visibility of women in the political arena as autonomous actors. These are; most African countries were moving towards multiparty systems and thus there was no need for mass organization that were linked and directed to single party. Therefore the death of mass women’s movement linked to single political party led to increase of autonomous women movements that utilized the opened up political space in this space. Another one is the increase in the educational opportunities for women and girls in this period creating a pool of capable women to vie for political positions. Either additionally women had longer experiences than men in the establishment and maintaining of associations. Donor funds were now newly available and channeled through NGOs, embassies and international foundations were another factor that spurred the growth of these movements. This encouraged women to engage in civic education, constitutional and legislative reform as well as leadership training programs. In this period the leadership of the country was committed to increasing women representation in political arena. This contributed to advancing women’s movement agendas. International women’s movements also played a key role in encouraging women to seek political positions (Goetz, 2002).

In her book “Women and Politics in Uganda” Aili Mari Tripp provides a brilliant and stimulating examination of women movements struggles in Uganda. This book provides a detailed study on gender impact on politics in Uganda. It is based on methodology of wide ranging interviews as well as surveys that highlight life chances of different women. In this book Tripp explores the reasons why women movements have grown so dramatically in a short time after NRM took power in 1986. Unlike in a lot of countries in Africa where the ruling party or regime controls women organizations and institutions, in Uganda these movements remained autonomous. In Africa after the 1990s women presence in political scene began to be felt. In some countries such as Uganda, Rwanda, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania they claimed more than one- third of parliamentary seats. To expand women’s rights women movements lobbied for constitutional and legislative reforms to enhance this development. In their book “African Women’s Movements: changing Political Landscapes” (Tripp,Casimiro,Kwesiga,& Mungwa,2009) Tripp, Casimiro, Kwesiga and Mungwa examines the factors following these developments and how independent women’s movements are changing international and national norms in regard to women rights and civil conflicts end (Tripp, et al., 2009).

In this research paper, it will focus on providing book reviews i.e. Women and Politics in Uganda and the Women’s movement in Uganda: History, Challenges, and Prospect. The paper will examine the content and information provided in the two books by Aili Mari Tripp, and Joy C Kwesiga entitled “The women’s movement in Uganda: History, challenges, and prospects”, while the other one is by Tripp Aili Mari (2000), entitled “Women & politics in Uganda”. The focus will be on what is written about women organization in Uganda. The two books talk about the barriers faced by women in their political participation, and the effects of cultural and social norms.



Book Review

Women and Politics in Uganda” and “The women’s lobby group in Uganda: History, challenges, and prospects”,

Tripp in this book “Women and Politics in Uganda” puts a case for women in that they use women organizations and movements to counter power interactions that favor men. In her case studies she examines setbacks and disappointments that display development as a complex institution that is full complex motives as well as undertones of aggressive self interest on every level.

Either, Tripp in this book examines how women movements have fought attempts by government to control them. She further asserts that the success of women’s organizations is as a result of maintaining their autonomy. She puts a case for the need for women organizations to be autonomous so as to develop political action patterns that are not characterized by patronage, ethnic alignments or sectarian division. According to Goetz, NRM wanted the pay-off for its women patronage to be the large vote bank. This notion of women being a vote bank for President Museveni’s NRM is emphasized by the presence of a number of advertisements that appeared in newspapers before presidential elections. The message was entitled “message from Women’s movement for return of Yoweri K. Museveni (WORK)”. This organization elaborated that it was speaking for the entire women’s movement (Goetz, 2002).

In this book she identifies sectarianism in many women organizations in the pre-colonial period. She notes that in this time these organizations were multi-racial, religious alongside being multi- ethnic. Presently even small women self help groups tend to have diverse composition and find a way of functioning in one language or more. These organizations are deliberately seeking to break from habits of political association according to their leaders. On pg 129; “Everything has been so politicized along tribal, religious and party lines. Women through these organizations are rejecting that”. The theme that is emphasized on this book is the unsuccessful attempts by the government to control women movements’ leadership and thus dictating the groups’ agendas. The other one the vision by Uganda women as put on page 29, where she indicates that women “envision alternative ways of ordering political, public and private life”.

Despite the fact that Tripp provides an insightful analysis, from the book’s case studies the leader is inclined to concur with the woman in Kiyembe market when she says “the war between men and women is still on” Pg 161. An example is given in Kitumba village near Jinja where a local government tried to take control of a clinic initiated by a voluntary women organization and the woman refused to have their leader replaced by male elder. The conflict escalated until the clinic was closed. The same applied in Kampala where Kyembe women’s cooperative ceded control of most of the market stalls they had constructed for the benefit of their members. On pg 214, Tripp highlights the plight of a women’s brick-making scheme which is successful. This scheme at Kamuli was envied by their men counterparts who dropped their own prices to strategically put women out of the market (Tripp, n.d).

Goetz further highlights the challenges that women in Uganda have faced prior to having these movements that are successful in comparison to most of African countries. She highlights that political parties in post independent Uganda were highly ethicized as well as being embedded in religion. This encouraged antipathy in many parties towards women and other social groups. Further she highlights that in this period no single party was able to go beyond constituents based on religion, ethnic backgrounds, and language. Further she highlighted that neither of the two major parties in this period were committed to advancing women interests in politics. This is despite these parties having women wings (Goetz, 2002).

Tripp shows the reader that in most of the African states the form of rule that was mainly practiced by the countries that had gained independence was Neo-patrimonial rule. In this type of rule, it focused mainly on male dominance in running the state of affairs of the country. People were given government positions based on the loyalty of the person, and the tribe. Therefore, the community from which the ruling party members came from dominated the government positions. These positions were used more for personal gain, rather than for the country’s development.

She further goes on to show why women’s mobilization is important. As has been portrayed by Tripp, in Uganda, the state and the ruling parties were the ones who were involved in oppressing the women and their movements. She goes on to highlight how women in the country sought social autonomy to an extent of disengaging the state i.e. the government. The theme that is highlighted explores the limitations that have been practiced in most of Africa’s social groups. Tripp also gives the reader a clear perspective of how women’s movement in Uganda began to emerge and rise following Yoweri’s Museveni ascension to power. Tripp talks about women’s representation to parliament just after the NRM movement took the power and control of the country. Before this period, women as has been stated before had little say in how the country was being run. However, during this period they were able to take a third of the parliamentary seats. Women leaders at this time were seen to be better leaders than their male counter-parts. This is because; they had the welfare of the state in mind, as opposed to their male counterparts who had taken up these posts for personal gain[2] (Hanson, 2002).

In 1997 NRM government enacted the local government Act which created one-third reservation for women. However the main challenge in this Act was in its implementation where it created ambiguity on the constituencies the women are supposed to represent. This Act may seem to have been a stride in the right way; however it faces challenges in its implementation. This is because of the ambiguities and constraints created in terms of representation, on whose interests these women are supposed to represent.

As Tripp observes, women rise in politics was founded mainly by the religious groups that existed in the pre-colonial times. However, if the religious movements can be described as the foundation of women’s roles in politics, then the Uganda Council of Women is the pillar. This is because; the Uganda’s Council of Women incorporated women from all sectors i.e. from different religious backgrounds i.e. Christians, Muslims, and the traditional religious backgrounds. The founders of the women’s movements were from different races i.e. white women, African women, and Indians. However, this organization was not popular among women who considered them to be indigenous. This is to say the women who could not speak English. This is because; they felt like this is an elite organization.

However, it was never an easy ride for the women or their organizations in their quest to gain a voice in the political circle. For instance, Tripp talks about how women had to fight for reforms in the marriage, and divorce laws. Women had no say in marriage. From a customary law point of view, a man could marry as many wives as he wanted, without the consent of his wife. She further shows that women who were married could not be employed. This was because of the social attitudes that women, mostly in the middle class were subjected to. The society had made the women feel that it was wrong for them, to have a family, while at the same timework. It is as if they had two jobs. Women who were employed did not qualify for pensions, and insurance, or even the hospital benefits.

“Women and Politics in Uganda” is a book that provides a delicate and complex insight as a result of result of Tripp’s research strategy. On pg (xxxiii) Tripp asks how the educated outsiders, northerners and Africans find the humility to not just listen and give expression to voices in grassroots but also enter in a dialogue and theorize with African women on their own mutual terms. For this mutuality to be attained Tripp used a translated case study in Lusoga and Luganda and then came back to Uganda to discuss it with all participants[3] (Goetz, 2002).  Hanson 2002, in the review of “women and politics in Uganda” he provides an incisive analysis on how people’s aspiration and for this case women’s have been foiled by local men mostly who are corrupt leaders as well as by ignorance and arrogance of international communities. This book also highlights how women strategized as women by deliberating creating cross alliances as well as encountering barriers as a result of literacy and wealth which provides a barrier that is almost insurmountable. An example of Kawaala housing project is given, where World Bank had funded it for urban redevelopment was strongly opposed by neighboring residents, and Kiribiwa a scam women’s organization indicates the vulnerability of the poor.

On the other side, in their book “African Women’s Movements: History, challenges, and prospects” Tripp et al., claims that women movements autonomy is a key determinant in gender based policies that were adopted in Africa after 1990. They further insist that other determinants that influence the success of these movements are the changing international norms, global and regional women movements’ influences, government and donor resource allocation to implement reforms related to women’s rights along with implementation of women friendly resources as a result of influences by multilateral agencies such as Commonwealth organizations, African Union, United Nations as well as regional institutions such as Southern Africa Development Community (SADC).  Aside from this the book indicates that the end of many conflicts in mid-1980s created a good political environment for women’s movement (Tripp, n.d).

Further this book examines the roots of contemporary women’s activism. It looks on the pre-colonial ideologies of politics along with the historic continuities in use of tactics such as shaming and grieving. Further the impact of colonial policies on civil society and female education along with the legacies they left are examined. This section indicates the role of women in national movements alongside various economic and women rights that women fought for in the struggle for independence. The role of women in post-independence one party rule is highlighted through looking at both constraints and possibilities of mobilization.

The authors have highlighted the factors that led to mobilization of women after 1990. They have focused on international influences in regard to women’s rights, international donor’s influences as well as political liberalization and democratization. These factors shaped the way women movements sought policy changes, the issues they concentrated on along with the success achieved.  They have further contrasted pre and post 1990s organizations in the book. Either, the importance of autonomy and heterogeneity, nature of advocacy, building across ties in ethnicity, religion and political affiliation of these movements are examined, besides identifying some of the challenges faced by these organizations from the state, donor and institutional weaknesses are also examined.

The authors have also examined the women movement’s impacts on the legislative reforms and constitutions that have been rewritten since 1990s. This is done through first reviewing literature on policy reforms and examining existing theories on why some of the reforms are adopted as opposed to others. The authors suggest that laws relating to the clan and family are harder to pass as opposed to those concerning employment, labor, representation and citizenship. Either an examination of legislative reforms in family law, land rights and domestic violence is conducted. The authors have also indicated that women have made numerous strides in the electoral arena. They are also making gains in the executive arm of the government as is the case in Liberia. The authors have also examined the constraints faced by women in mounting a bid for an electoral office. In the same aspect the rise in the number of women engaged African legislatures is examined. This is through looking on the roles women movements are playing in the quest of increasing legislative capacities of women. The engagement of women movement with the state bureaucracy from the national machineries and ministries concerned with gender is also examined. In the same context the approaches guiding the work of these machineries, from different women in development and gender and development approaches are examined in this chapter. Women movements are examined in cases of gender streamlining in Uganda. Women’s activism in relation to peace building is investigated. Here the book shows how peace and women’s movement in Uganda represented important moments in gender activism in context of conflict and post conflict. Finally several case studies are highlighted[4] (Tripp, et al., 2009).

In this overview of this book the challenges and successes of women’s movement in Uganda is highlighted. Various individual organization and their impacts are examine by individual authors on different themes under discussion. The authors have also successfully balanced the opposing themes putting women as agents of change who are active as well as victims. The overview of women’s activism and its history throughout Uganda along with various organization structures is done. In addition to this, the book highlights the efforts undertaken by women so as to overcome the patriarchal and archaic voices taken by women so as to have their voices heard from household levels to national levels. In addition this the book focuses on the actual areas and roles that women movements have played in agitating for changes in education, land issues, media, economy, agriculture, conflict resolution among other major issues concerning women. The authors of this book have selected relevant topics that are not relevant to Ugandan women situation in the twenty first century but also for women throughout the continent[5] (Aspaas, 2003).

However these books have faced numerous critiques and shortcomings. The question of how the different organizations that are discussed in these book’s various chapters interact with one another. The main question is how on a global scale are the Uganda based organization relating with other women organizations in the north and to what extent is the south- south cooperation between the developing nations exist? Another question is the organizations challenges faced by these movements as they try to establish their different platforms. In addition to this, how are officers of these movements selected and to what levels are these movements following models of democracy, transparency and accountability.  Through a careful analysis of the development of these movements, other women activists in Africa can learn from the Ugandan experience. The authors of these books have also not addressed the interactions of women’s movement and the judicial system. While Tripp, et al., 2009, provides numerous instances of legislative and executive interaction with women’s movement there is little indication of judicial interaction with women’s movement. This should be emphasized because as women’s movement agitate for more rights, particularly with respect to ownership rights the judiciary must be a key player in the enforcement. The other gap missing in the two books is that they have not analyzed how these movements interact to respond to pandemics in Uganda. For example Tripp, et al., 2009, does not address how these movements are responding to AIDS pandemic in various platforms. In a case like this the book should have addressed how the AIDS pandemic have affected women’s capacities in taking care of the high numbers of orphans and how to sustain and educate them.

The authors have provided a lot of information in the two books through various cases studies. This can act as a base of primary source of information for a research. In addition various gaps that have been identified in this research can provide ideas on research topics as well as ideas. However, the authors have provide a good analysis on the success of women movements in Uganda. The study of these movements can be conducted on areas that the authors have not indicated such as their governance among other issues.


            Women movements in Uganda have been successful in advocating for women rights. This is indicted by the high number of women present in legislative assemblies. This has also been indicated by feminine legislations such as the Local Government Act which provides that one third of represenutation in the local governments should women. Either women representation in the executive arm of the government have increased in the post 1990 era. A lot of women have been appointed in the cabinet as weell as being nominated as members of parliament.

Both of these books books have highlighted the factors that has led to the success of women movements in africa and especially having Uganda as a case study. The main factors that have led to success of these movements in the twenty first century are highlighted as the fact that in the period of 1990s there was a move towards multiparty system of governance in African countries thus reducing the need for mass organizations that were directed and linked to single ruling party. In the same period education opportunities for girls and women expanded thus creating a pool of capable women who could offer leadership and also compete in equal grounds with men. Women also had a lot of experiences than their male counterparts  in creating and maintaining associations. This was as result of being involved in such roles at church related groups and other self help associations. Another factor was the availability of donor funds that were channelled through NGOs and other organiozations thus spurring the growth of movements and organizations that supported women activities in politics.  In this period majority of the leadership committed to increasing representation of women in country’s political leadership. This move led  to dramatic increase in the number of female legislators in most countries. The international women’s movement also played a role in success of Uganda’s women movements. This is despite the fact that the impetus for their success was internal, these injternational organizations applied pressures thus adding the impetus for this success.

Despite having enjoyed such success, these organizations have also faced a number of challenges. Tripp in her book “Women and Politics in Uganda” have highlighted that one of the major challenge that was faced by these movements is autonomity of these organisations from state interference as well as from political machinations. It is indicated that in Uganda NRM wanted to take advantage of women movement for the sake of votes. The large base of women provided a good voting block for most political parties. The other challenge arises from the patriachal nature of Ugandan society and that of Africa in general. As highlighted by Tripp, this factor contributed to some of the conflicts between men and women as is the case in Kitumba village niar Jinja. Another challenge is from hetergeneity of these movements. As is the case of most political parties in Uganda which takes ethnic, religious or racial dimensions most women movements had taken the same dimension. However Tripp, et al., 2009, observes that these movements were able to overcome this and be all inclusive.

The major theme that is emphasized  nby the authors of these books is autonomy of these movements. NRM in Uganda wanted to use its association with women movements for its own political gain. This is by using women as a voting block to ensure that they were elected back in the office. In this aspect patronage of women movements by men political leaders was rife in the pre 1990 period. However in the post 1990 period women movements have asserted their autonomy from this period.Another theme that comes out more prominently in both books is the chauvinistic nature of the Ugandan society. This characteristic can be extended to the general society in Africa. This nature have been highlighted in the numerous conflicts arising between women and men in the struggle for the control of key activities which had been successful under women leadership.

Although these books provides good insights on the challenges, success and prospects of women movements in Uganda, there are some areas that they have missed. The authors have not indicated how the experience of these developments can be applied in other countries in Africa aside from Uganda. In addition the authors have not indicated how these movements have handled the pandemics facing Uganda and in particular AIDS. There is also a gap of how these organizations select their officers and whether they follow democratic practices as well as transparency and accountability measures in these groups. Either, the authors should have highlighted the interactions between these movements and the judicial system. This is because judicial system is important in the achievement of their goals especially in regard ownership rights. These areas would form field for more study.

Finally I would note that tyhese two books would be interesting to those seeking to understand power in most of African societies. This is because in both cases Tripp along with her co-authors have drawn very rich and detailed studies that makes these books valuable for scholars.

The women movements began to lobby so that the constitution of the country could be reformed in such a way that it will increase women’s rights. One needs to note that; in the African countries or culture, women were regarded as ‘lesser beings,’ than their male counter-parts. In the 1990s, the women began fighting for their rights in terms of fighting for their rights in the country (Hanson, 2002).


Aspaas, R. H., 2003. The Women’s Movement in Uganda: History challenges and Prospects by Aili mari Tripp, Joy C. Kwesiga. African Studies Review, 46(3), pp. 191-193.

Austen, R. A., 2002. JSTOR. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 3 may 2014].

Goetz, A. M., 2002. Constraints on Women’s Political Effectiveness in Uganda. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 40(4), pp. 549 – 575.

Hanson, H., 2002. Women and politics in Uganda. African Economic History, Issue 30, pp. 142 – 144.

Tripp, A. M., Casimiro, I., Kwesiga, J. & Mungwa, A., 2009. African Women’s Movements Transforming political landscape. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 3 may 2014].

Tripp, A. T., n.d. New Trends in Women’s Political Participation in Africa. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 3 may 2014].


[1] Austen, R. A., 2002. JSTOR. [Online]
Available at:

[2] Hanson, H., 2002. Women and politics in Uganda. African Economic History, Issue 30, pp. 142 – 144.

[3] Goetz, A. M., 2002. Constraints on Women’s Political Effectiveness in Uganda. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 40(4), pp. 549 – 575.

[4] Tripp, A. T., n.d. New Trends in Women’s Political Participation in Africa. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 3 may 2014].

[5] Aspaas, R. H., 2003. The Women’s Movement in Uganda: History challenges and Prospects by Aili mari Tripp, Joy C. Kwesiga. African Studies Review, 46(3), pp. 191-193.

Analysis of Willa Cather’s Paul’s Case.

Analysis of Willa Cather’s Paul’s Case.

Written by Willa Cather, Paul’s Case is a story about a teenage boy who seems very alienated with no one to call his mother. His alienation is very much attributed to lack of maternal guidance and care. In this amazing story, the author portrays Paul as a 16 year old dysfunctional teenager who has little interest in school and instead finds pleasure in working at Carnegie Hall with big dreams of one day living a lavish lifestyle in the city of New York. Paul’s situation is not helped by his father’s parenting skills and this is partly responsible for his strange personality. In fact, Paul has some yellow wallpapers depicting music and opulent culture that he dreams to have some day. In real essence, Paul’s obsession with materialism is a reflection of his detachment with reality and the aesthetics only seem to serve his fantasies. This essay will argue Paul’s Case with an in-depth analysis of what the protagonist suffered from and the dominant themes in Willa Cather’s story.

From a psychological point of view, the case of Paul in Paul’s Case can be described as that of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. “The narcissist is characterized by excessive preoccupation with issues of personal adequacy, power, and prestige” (Saari 68). From Cather’s perspective, Paul’s case is puzzling since not only is his father baffled by his son’s queer behavior but the school faculty also found something strange about Paul’s personality. This is evident when Paul’s teachers speak with such unkind language about his conduct after coming from a suspension. From his mode of dressing to the funny facial expressions that he kept making during his summon, Paul appears unmoved by the grandiosity of his actions and the teachers interpret this as sheer arrogance. Their perception is perhaps informed by Paul’s age and they probably mistook it for typical arrogance common in most adolescents. However, when the author delves further into Paul’s twisted life history, the reader gets to understand that the case of Paul is far much serious than the challenges of teenage hood. According to Saari, a close diagnosis of Paul’s life reveals that he suffers from what psychiatrists term as “narcissistic personality disorder.”(Saari 68)

So what is narcissistic personality disorder and how does it manifest itself? In order to establish criteria for carrying out the diagnosis of this disorder, the American Psychiatrist Association (APA) has come up with a fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). In the prism of these criteria, “one suffering from narcissistic personality disorder has to at least meet five of the nine predetermined conditions.” (Saari 72). Amazingly, Paul seems to meet all these conditions indicating that Willa Cather had curved her niche long before scientific diagnostic criteria were developed. Critics have come up with remarkable analysis of Paul’s inside world in Paul’s Case.

According to DSM-IV, one suffering from Narcissistic Personality Disorder exhibits the following characteristics among others (Saari 75).

  • is obsessed with fantasies of overwhelming success, beauty or brilliance
  • has a huge sense of self importance which is manifested through exaggerated accomplishments and talents; such a person expects to identified as having such qualities
  • believes that he/she is so special and can only relate and associate with people who are unique and are highly regarded
  • is jealous of others or thinks that others envy him/her
  • disregards other people’s feelings and needs by being empathetic
  • has irrational expectations of special treatment and favor from others

Paul’s fragile self-esteem is the glue that holds his narcissistic personality together. DSM-IV posits that this self-esteem constantly demands attention and suffers a great deal whenever it is threatened. That is to say, when this esteem is threatened through harsh criticism, the narcissist will experience low self-esteem which can grow to downward moods, social withdrawal or severe depressive disorders. Experts further argue that diminished self-esteem can lead to psychotic incidents and suicidal tendencies.

From the depictions of what a narcissistic personality is, it is easier to relate them to Paul’s case. When one reads on, there is a general feeling of Paul’s lack of contrition and impertinence if his teachers’ sentiments are anything to go by. As far as the criterion touching on arrogance is concerned, Paul comes across as a boy who is full of himself. His teachers equally take notice of his contemptuous attitude towards them especially when he irritatingly raises his eyebrows and twitches his lips (Cather 13). Consequently, they set upon him in a vindictive manner with ruthlessness which they later regret to have been overboard. The sentiments of Paul’s teachers are a true reflection of what therapists deal with in narcissistic patients. Psychiatrists aver that therapists sometimes tend to react to such contempt with anger or self-protectiveness. Despite such sentiments towards narcissists, therapists are always quick to notice that such individuals are disturbed. For instance, Paul’s drawing master notices that he is disturbed. He claims that, “…I don’t really believe that smile of his comes altogether from insolence; there’s something sort of haunted about it…. There is something wrong about the fellow.”(Cather 16). This is in compliance with studies which have shown that narcissists sometimes show their lack of significant connectedness with others and intrinsic emptiness.

Like narcissists, Paul projects mannerisms of vanity. This comes out the moment he spent long hours before heading to New York. He is described as having spent two hours initially in purchasing his clothes (Cather 22). When he was getting ready for his maiden day in town, he spent more hours in a bid to dress perfectly. He was only satisfied to leave after ensuring that everything was the way he wanted it to be.

Paul also wanted to be seen as special although he had no noticeable talents. In spite of lacking tangible attainments, Paul always carried a huge sense of self-importance with him. In fact, “He had no desire to become an actor…. He felt no desire to do any of these things; what he wanted was to see, to be in the atmosphere, float on the wave of it … away from everything” (Cather 45). He is deeply immersed in the fantasies that trying to be that which he is not will enable him do away with his inward emptiness and help him acquire self-worth. The theatre also formed a very big part of his fantasies. To him, the theatre was an object of personal brilliance and beauty. He found the allurement of hidden love in it coupled with fairy tale ideas. Whenever he was at the theatre, Paul felt poetic and capable of doing marvelous things. The theatre was therefore a getaway refuge where he could seek solace and live in the world of fantasies that complied with his dreams. He also believed that the theatre provided him with the opportunity to meet and associate with prominent people like Charlie Edwards.

Moreover, Willa Cather’s Paul’s Case touches on some significant themes. One of these is a woman’s position in a given society. When analyzed from a feminist viewpoint, the story is symbolic of the inequalities that exist between men and women. The reader can easily conclude that part of Paul’s woes could easily be attributed to his mother’s absence. It is worth noting that a person’s mother usually play a major role in his/her upbringing in life. Due to lack of a motherly figure in his life, Paul was raised by his father who seemed overwhelmed by this task and even complained before the principal of how he was perplexed with his son (Cather 23). The author further portrays women as playing minor roles in the society. In Paul’s neighborhood, “women in their Sunday waists sat in rockers on their cramped porches.” (Cather 33).  Cather argues that every normal family in Paul’s neighborhood always had a motherly figure and Paul’s lack of one was an indication of his abnormality. Cather’s description of the soloist at the concert hall is equally a sign of the low and demeaning status women are given in this story. She is described as adorning a tiara and a satin gown which gave her impalpable air of achievement. From such a description, it is clear that the soloist was only entertaining the crowd and was admired for her attractive attire. She had a superficial and useless value with no power or authority.

Another biasness from the author’s side is when she is talking of aggression and mercilessness Paul faced from his teachers. Whenever Paul faced an accusation from his teachers, the author is quick to point that the female teachers are the ones that were more aggressive towards him. Cather talks of how Paul’s English teacher was at the forefront when his teachers set upon him mercilessly (Cather 23). This depiction is a little harsh considering that when a pupil is at school, the teacher’s role include that of the parent and he/she is always under the tender care and supervision of the teacher. When the author talks of the preoccupations of men and women in Paul’s neighborhood, the reader gets the feeling of a place a woman is given in that society. Men are portrayed as being preoccupied with their accomplishments together with that of their sons while woman are talked about as being concerned with trivial issues. For instance, girls are talked of as only being concerned with the waffles one of them had eaten in the last church supper and the number of shirtwaists they had made (Vickie 34). This can easily be interpreted in the context of women being concerned only with superficial matters while men are mindful of personal success. Women’s roles in the amazing Carnegie Hall are also very limited and insignificant. While the males were the dominant gender among Carnegie Hall’s employees, women were reduced to mere performers or spectators.

The American Dream is another obvious theme in Paul’s Case. Paul’s father and residents of Cordelia Street are described as coming from a respectable neighborhood where hard work, family and religion are highly valued (Vickie 32). Men talked of their bosses and how some of them rose from abject poverty to lead large corporations. Paul himself is a constant dreamer of luxurious life and desires the achievements of the cash boys who became famous. His trip to the city of New York is also testament to this. His visit to the Waldorf Hotel gives him a sense of fulfillment, though only for a short while, as he acknowledges that is what his struggle was about and that cash is everything.

All in all, the essay has analyzed Paul’s Case from a psychological point of view and discussed some of the outstanding themes in Willa Cather’s work. One can easily conclude that the protagonist suffered from Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The obvious themes include a woman’s position in the society and the American Dream.


Britton, Vickie. “Paul’s Case by Willa Cather- An Analysis.” Suite 101. 5 Sept. 2009.       Web. 20 Apr. 2010 <http://classic-american->

Cather, Willa. Paul’s Case and Other Writings. Dover Publications Inc. 1996.

Saari, Rob. “Paul’s Case: A Narcissistic Personality Disorder, 301.81-Crititcal Essay.”     Bnet. 1997 Web. 20 Apr. 2010        <

Analysis Of White Collar, Burglary And Theft Crimes

Analysis Of White Collar, Burglary And Theft Crimes

Edwin Sutherland came up with the term white collar crime, some decades ago, while addressing the American Sociological Association. This took place during an address to the then American president. This type of crime is often compared to other crimes, such as theft and burglary. White collar crimes are committed by criminals and they involve stealing of other people’s property and money. Burglaries and white collar crimes are committed by people known as scroungers. They are people who seek to prey and benefit from other people’s resources. In the United States, as much as 15% of people are theft and white collar crime victims (Friedrich, 2004).

The powerful and the rich are known to commit white collar crimes. They crimes are committed by the people of high status and respectability, while carrying out their professions. This crime mostly benefits the organization the person works in, in that it earns a lot of money in profits. This can take the form of antitrust, embezzlement, fraud, among others (Friedrich, 2004). Most times those who commit this crime often escape punishment, due to their influence on the legal system.

Theft and burglary are also known as larceny as they involve taking other people’s property of a personal nature, through stealing. There are several categories, which theft, as well as burglaries is based upon. They include; Petty Larceny also known as misdemeanor whereby, small amounts of theft occur. The other is Grand Larceny whereby, large value items are stolen and the guilty person sent to prison for felony. In the different states, boundaries are set to determine the nature of the theft (Friedrich, 2004) .For example; South Carolina charges its boundaries above twenty dollars. Burglary occurs when a criminal enters and breaks into a house or premises and commits a felony. According to the law, burglary has to occur at night, where people reside, as well as forced entry being used. Research has found out that most burglars are young and from the male gender.

Unlike the crimes of burglary and theft tried in criminal courts, white collar crime is conducted in civil courts.  The sentences served by the white collar crime offenders are usually short as compared to the other crimes. Also, they have the benefit of paying monetary fines.  As compared to thieves and burglars, those who commit white collar crimes are sentenced in prisons, which are of extremely high standards (Friedrich, 2004). Prosecutors in white collar cases try and protect the image if the offender.  They try and maintain the image of the offender by ensuring that they are not compared to common criminals.

In some recent news at Wetumpka, it was found out that a burglary took place and the stolen item was a flat screen television. There were three robbers but only two were caught. The criminals used a gun and this added onto their charges (Henninger, 2011). The two culprits are being charged with robbery of the first degree as the police seek to apprehend the other culprit. The law applied in this case concerns robbery through burglary and theft.   An example of a white collar crime is concerning the fraud matter at Medicare (Taylor, 2011). The matter is still in court as it involves many prominent people. In conclusion, the different types of crime are punishable by law and no one should be exempted from their crimes.


Friedrich, David. (2004). Trusted Criminals. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson.

Henninger, Jeff. (2011). Why Congressman Anthony Weiner was not hacked and why he claims he was. White Collar Crime News.  Retrieved from

Taylor, Kevin. (2011). 2 arrested on burglary, theft charges. The Wetumpka Herald. Retrieved from





Tutor’s Name



Globalization defined the growth of integration of the world economy that contributes to an increase in the level of communication, products, ideas, services and expertise exchange across boards has had both positive and negative impacts. Globalization has had dual effects on the sovereignty of states and countries. With the increased level of world integration, characterized by large volumes of cross-border business, there has been subsequent erosion of the indigenous cultures resultant from infiltration of foreign cultures. Experts argue that globalization has also contributed to the loss of business for indigenous companies and firms. Additionally, with the increased level of information exchange facilitated by modern forms of communication such as the internet, faxes and world audio-visual news reporting on the digital platform, there has been an increase in the number of cross boarder crimes. However, the loss of state economic importance, especially with the increased international trading, regarded as one of the most adverse effects of globalization to countries. While globalization contributes to the expansion and growth of local economies, exposing the local manufacturers to the rest of the world, the reality is that this has had adverse effects on the sovereignty of certain countries. While discussing the contribution of globalization on the decline of the state’s economic importance, this essay will analyze various ways in which globalization has influenced the global economy since the post-world war II era.

Sovereignty of a state

Sovereignty, defined as the absolute authority over a certain territory stems from the independence of nations. However, various factors challenge this authority. Among these, include the threat of global terrorism, the climate change, and the powers of international organizations and the influence of the global market. Globalization, however is one of the biggest obstacles to the sovereignty of states. Changing concepts of sovereignty in the recent past agree to the existence of pure state sovereignty and human sovereignty. While the pure state sovereignty seeks to protect the interests of the individual state in the international front, human sovereignty protects the interest of the people within the state, which is paramount, and which the state should guarantee (Margdalena, 1996, p.2). Pure state of sovereignty defines a situation where the state directs its political, economic and social life according to its values, free of external influence, pressure or coercion by other states.  Recent developments in the global scenario make this not only impossible, but also limit the influence of the state within its own territory. Since the end of the Second World War, the normative framework of human rights creates a sense of obligation by the state towards its citizens (Margdalena, 1996, p. 2). However, economic integration of the country to the rest of the world considerably limits the options available to sates, subsequently limiting the range of policy options available to the states. This considerably limits the capacity of states to meet their obligations to their citizens.

Ways in which globalization impacts on this sovereignty

Post World War II states’ economic power then and now

Historians argue that the Second World War laid the foundation for the high level of world economic, political and social integration currently experienced by the world. Were it not for the various factors necessitating the collaboration of different countries, probably, the world would never enjoy the high level of integration it enjoys today (Meyer 2000, p. 233). Increased cross-border communication and ideas sharing between various countries taking part in the war characterized the Second World War. Further, the high demand for weapons, firearms, ammunition, tankers, and war crafts and submarines necessitated increased need for communication among the various countries. In an effort to amass weapons for use during the war, non-manufacturing countries procured these weapons from the manufacturing countries. Fought in various fronts, through the land, the sea and air, there was a high demand for countries to offer each another support especially with the battlegrounds, seaports for tanker’s docking among other needs. Additionally, there were increased pacts signed before and after the Second World War. Most popular of these packs was the Germany and Austria-Hungary pact, the allied front, among others. These later formed the basis for the post world war trading pacts, especially in the European countries, America and African countries (Bordo et al. 2003, p. 144).

When the war set in, some of the economies suffered significantly. The war interrupted communication and transport lines between the countries. Further, it affected the running of the economies, as there was massive destruction of infrastructure, death of workers as well as increased expenditure in the war. There was a need for countries to establish proper relations with each other to recover from the impact of the war.

Cohen (2001, p. 75) argues that while the war had adverse effects in the global economy, it opened the world to unimaginable levels. However, the impact of the increased level of integration then was not as defined as it is currently. Countries then did not engage in the level of business, ideas and information sharing, as it is the case currently. Although there were high levels of integration in those times between the allied countries then, there were little economic interests between countries. Interestingly though, economic interests were one of the contributing factors to the outbreak of the war (Meyer 2000, p. 234). While some countries fought for colonies, especially in the African continent, others wanted to show their economic and military superiority.

More importantly, the era of the industrial revolution, which took place in the 19th century, between 1840s to late 1800s created fertile grounds for the events that took place during the Second World War  (Bordo et al. 2003, p. 146). While initially there was a high demand for labor to work in plantations and manufacturing companies, the end of the war saw an increased uptake of technology in the production of goods and services provision. With the surplus production by different countries, it became necessary for companies to look for new markets for their products.  Perhaps due to the rise of new methods of production, with better performance and more efficient, coupled with the evolution of the concept of management and new ways of doing business contributed to this growth. Catapulting the world to a new level of production, especially in the European and United States countries, there was a need for countries to export products. As such, governments, started getting into trading pacts with their allied nations. This father necessitated the protection of different countries’ interests in their trading partners, hence the establishment of foreign dockets in these countries (Barrow 2005, p. 136).

Diplomatic relations between countries worsened in this period. Every country planned to establish proper relationships with each other. While the trading agreements, at that time allowed for equitable trade between the partners, the increased need for profitability and economic gains from these agreements has seen an increased level of exploitation of the developing countries by the developed countries. Developed countries saw this as an opportunity to exploit their colonies, thus leading to the era of neo-colonialism.

The resultant impacts of the war were far more reaching than they were then. After the war, the world started looking for ways of maintaining peace and preventing the outbreak of a new war (Bordo et al. 2003, p. 146). This led to the formation of the United Nations, which had different organs, all working hand in hand with different member countries. It also saw the formation of umbrella organizations such as the international criminal court, the Red Cross society, among others. The agreements signed during this era, in an effort to prevent further war had considerable influence in the sovereignty of different countries. Despite the sovereignty holding that governments of different countries had the authority to make their own rules and regulations, these pacts undermined this condition. States had to adhere to various conditions in the pacts, which did not observe the sovereignty of the state (Cohen 2001, p. 75).

Perhaps what fueled the current need for global integration was the cold war. The cold war divided the various countries into two major ideologies, capitalism and communism. States, aligning themselves along these two ideologies had to show loyalty to their allies. This considerably undermined the sovereignty of different countries. While the communist states advocated for socialism, opposed to the capitalism, capitalist states believed in competition and indirect exploitation. However, the collapse of the United Soviets States, which saw the death of communism, opened these countries to the global competition.

The impact of globalization in the current era

The fact that states have to formulate their policies in line with the rest of the world undermines the state sovereignty. The wide varieties of policy options available to states after the World War II are no longer available. The infiltration of the world ideologies, policies that the various states should adhere to, in an effort to maintain global peace, economic stability and growth limits the powers of local governments. Influence of policy formulation within a state goes deeper than the interests of the people within the state represented by the government (Oji & Ozioko, 2011, p. 262). Largely, it considers the global requirements, whether in the production of goods, the formulation of laws governing human rights and the methods of production.

The most affected form of sovereignty is the economic policy formulation by states across the world. The world, more than ever has to rely on predetermined conditions before formulating their own policies. Through trade and economic integration, financial markets and the competition for new markets, states have to align their policies along the global set standards. While countries now compete for the new markets, raw materials and labor just as organizations do, the financial accounting and reporting standards, capital markets regulation and carbon emission requirements further constrain sovereignty of states (Barrow 2005, p. 136). Additionally, due to the increase in the level of competition at the global platform, countries have resulted to reduced costs of goods, reduced labor costs, and reduced taxation levels in an effort to make their local markets more competitive. Hence, the country indirectly has to conform to the local trends against its own will. According to Oji & Ozioko (2011, p. 264), the UN argues that for the world to achieve economic growth, and then countries should remove trade tariffs to allow free movement of goods and services in these countries. This has further weakened the sovereignty of different states as countries adhere to this directive.

Different points of view of globalization

Researchers have developed three major theoretical points of view explaining globalization in the world economy. Hyperglobalists, Skeptics and Transformationalists are the main points of view on the increased level of globalization of the world economy. Hyperglobalists perspective of globalization considers globalization as a new epoch in the history of human kind. The new epoch points out to the declining need and diminishing relevance of the nation-states authorities, largely brought about by the economic interest of a globalized market. According to this perspective, there is an increase in the denationalization of the local economies, increasingly becoming more international. Although the Hyperglobalists agree on the general, factors fueling the rise of the globalization, hey disagree on whether these forces are good or bad. Neo-liberals see the increased level of globalization as a good thing to states. They agree that although there are two groups in the globalization process, the winners of the globalized world economy exceeds the losers. On the other hand, the neo-Marxist orientation to globalization hold a lot of skepticism to the neo-liberal thought. According to the neo-Marxists, globalization will only lead to increased levels of exploitation and reinforce inequalities in the global economy (Sally 2000, p. 235).

Skeptics approach

Proponents of this approach view current trends in the globalization process and international approaches to globalization as more fragmented than globalized. According to these people, the golden age of globalization occurred towards the end of the 19th century and as such, the current trends show regionalization of the global economy. These authors also argue that the old cleavages are have not lost their relevance among the people. They disagree that the world does not draw the third world into the increasingly global economy that destroys old lives due to exploitation. Instead of the increased exploitation as suggested by a number of critics of globalization concept, these authors argue that there is an increased level of marginalization of the third world. As such, these authors see global capitalism as a myth. They disagree with the thought that the growth of multinational corporations render the governance of economic flows and benefits irrelevant (Sally 2000, p. 235).

Transformationalists approach

According to proponents of this argument, the view of globalization differences from that of the Hyperglobalists and Skeptics mainly because there is no single cause of globalization and that there is no possible way of measuring the outcomes of globalization. Despite the fact that these authors describe the various changes taking place resultant from globalization, their approach is less certain about the historical trajectories caused by these changes. According to these authors, there are much greater factors influencing globalization, against less certain outcomes (Sally 2000, p. 235).


Globalization, regarded as both a blessing and a vice is here to stay. There is no indication that the rate of the current global integration is likely to slow down. With the need for countries to compete for the global economy and an effort to expand their economies, there is likely to be an increase in the level of integration, exchange of ideas and information. Further, this integration has created yet another form of interaction, that of global policies those countries ought to adhere. While global economy increasingly becomes more liberal, with countries trading with each other at tremendous rates, it has increased the chances of crime, complexity of doing business and the demand for expertise knowledge. As such, the world now, more than ever requires joint policies, despite the fact that they affect the sovereignty of state-nations. Although sovereignty describes the state of complete authority over a particular territory, the reality is that these policies and global requirements more than ever undermine this authority. States cannot enjoy the independence they had during the post-world war II era, if the recent trends in the sharing of information, ideas, products and services. Different perspectives of globalization have sought to explain factors contributing to the growth of the level if globalization in the global economy. Hyperglobalists, Skeptics and Transformationalists are the most common perspectives of globalization. Of these three, transformationalists perspective best explains the factors contributing to the growth of globalization and the possible outcomes. The reality is that althpugh there are numerous factors explaining the increased level of globalization, there are no certain outcomes of the globalization process.

Works Cited

Barrow, CW 2005, ‘The Return of the State: Globalization, State Theory, and the New Imperialism *’, New Political Science, 27, 2, pp. 123-145, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2014.

Bordo, M. D., Taylor, A. M., & Williamson, J. G 2003, Globalization in historical perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cohen, ES 2001, ‘Globalization and the Boundaries of the State: A Framework for Analyzing the Changing Practice of Sovereignty’,Governance, 14, 1, p. 75, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2014.

Margdalena, M. M. M 1996, National sovereignty and international organizations. The Hague [u.a.: Kluwer Law Internat.

Meyer, J. W 2000, Globalization Sources and Effects on National States and Societies. International Sociology15(2), 233-248.

Oji, A. E., & Ozioko, M. V. C 2011, Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence257-272.

Sally, R 2000, ‘Globalization and policy response: Three perspectives’, Government & Opposition, 35, 2, p. 235, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 21 March 2014.

Analysis of Video Recording Medium

Analysis of Video Recording Medium



Video is a clear and a compelling way of presenting information. It is also a very interesting way of highlighting interesting and experimental information and can also be used to illustrate and show different concepts. The unique feature of videos is that the provider a well detailed  and permanent record that can be analyzed in several different ways in the search for information. These benefits have long been witnessed in education, training and testing over the years.

Although video has now been used for quite some time, there are very few tools that have been developed to analyze video data, or the medium by which such video has been recorded. Not to mention the constant development of video recording for example new applications in video mail,

Interactive multimedia systems which are increasingly driving the industry.


The Video Tape Recorder

This is a tape recorder that can record video material. At the beginning, video was firs recorded onto single reels of tape as was audio recording. In order to load the tape, one had to thread it through rollers and across recording and playback heads onto a reel that took it up (take-up reel).

Before the video tape recorder was invented, live video  had to be recorded onto motion picture film; a process that was known as tape-recording and even though the product was relatively of good quality, the recording could neither be slowed down or freeze framed. Even after the invention of the video tape recorders, tele-recording was still used for over ten years on.

The first commercially successful videotape format was the 2 inch quadruplex that was developed for the broadcast television industry sometime in 1956. It revolutionized television broadcast production and operations before the motion picture film industry. In contrast, the motion picture film used the kinescopes which were more costly and took more time to develop. Later, color videotapes were introduce in 1958 and first became available in the early 1970s.

The major disadvantage of this technology is that the tape got damaged from hand-threading, contamination of the media on the tape as a result of threading using bare hands and dust which ultimately contaminated all the exposed surfaces of the tape.

These inconveniences brought about the development of the video cassette recorder where the videotape is enclosed in a user friendly videocassette. Until later in the century, this was the most common and well known video tape recorder. Ideally, the tape is attached onto two reels enclosed in the cassette and the loading and the unloading became automated. So the problems that were brought about by the touching, dust, dirty and misalignments that could foul the recording mechanisms were sorted.  However, when the videocassette resulted to a failure, for example by getting stuck, the user had to manually sort it out.

The Video cassette recorder

As already mentioned above, this is a type of  videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape that records the audio and video  from a television broadcast. Numerous videocassette recorders have an inbuilt tuner and a timer that could be used to pre set when to start recording.

The development of the videocassette recorder cannot be divorced from that of the  videotape recording as a whole. One of the major renowned models includes the Telcan that was produced by the Nottingham Electronic Valve Company. This was the first home video recorder but its shortcoming was that it was too expensive for those times. It was also very technical to put together and could only record up to 20 minutes of output, in black and white.

The development of videocassette followed the replacement of other open reel systems that were being used at the time. The Philips model that was developed in 1970 revolutionized the market because it had a recording time of one hour. However, it was very expensive.

It was not until some time later in the late 1970s that mostly Japanese and European companies developed machines that were more advanced and accurate and as thus the video cassette recorder started to become a commodity for the mass markets. With companies trying to out do each other by improving on the features such as the timers and recording durations as consumers flocked for longer recording hours.

The video cassette recorder has been said to have had certain glitches. For instance, the magnetic tape was “chewed” especially when ejected from the machine.  This was commonly as a result of old age and lack of cleaning.

In addition, there were tapes which when recorded in LP or EP/LP modes could not playback in certain machines. It was also noted that tapes that had been recorded in older machines could not play in machines developed after 1995. This was paradoxical because newer video cassette recorders tend to have a shorter lifespan than their older counterparts and have very few buttons hence relying more on the remote and the inbuilt automatic features.

At the dawn of the millennium, DVDs gradually overtook the video cassette recorders as they extensively became more popular as the best format to play in pre-recorded video. Given their recent drops in prices they have been seen as the death of the video cassette recorders. As the reduced sales of video cassette recorders increased so did their production which is almost coming to an end.

This declining market and several legal mandates of the recent past have seen major electronic makers ending non-economical productions. Another problem that the video cassette recorder faced was especially the exchange or recording between PAL and NTSC countries. Multi Standard video recorders and TV sets gradually overcame these incompatibility problems.

The U-matic machines were made with Stereo and Beta and VHS started out splitting the audio track on the tape but given the slow speed, the quality was not good enough. Thus came the development of Hi-Fi which modulated the left and the right soundtracks as FM mode on the video portion of the tape.

Digital Video Recorder

This is a device that records in a digital forma to a disk drive, flash drive or a memory card or any other mass storage device. The term includes  setup boxes that have a recording facility, recorders and software for personal computers which enable video capture and playback from a disk. Until 2007, there were no television sets with digital video recording. In 2007, LG launched the firs one.

In 1998, the first consumer digital video recorders were launched. In 1999 Microsoft Corporation demonstrated a unit that had digital video recording capability although it had been show cased the previous year and was mainly for dish networks.

Initially, several legal actions have moved companies to remove a lot of features such as automatic commercial skip and the sharing of recordings over the internet; newer devices have  steadily regained these functions while adding several complimentary abilities like recording onto DVDs and programming. They also developed remote controlling facilities using PDAs, networked personal computers and Web browsers.

The hard disk based digital video recorders have made the time shifting feature that in the pas was done by video cassette recorders much more convenient. These times they allow modes that enable the consumer to pause live television, instantly replay interesting scenes, chase playback where the viewer can view scenes before the recording is completed and of course skipping the advertisements.

The format that is mostly used by the digital video recorders is the MPEG format which compresses digitized video signals.  Hardware that would later have digital video recording capabilities with the assistance of the Microsoft software was developed in 1999 and it too came with the shifting capabilities of the normal digital video recorders and with it came tremendous market sales.

The UK has their “plus boxes” and South African’s  Multichoice  also launched their digital video recording  available in the DSTV platform.

As time goes on, several satellite and cable companies are incorporation in their systems digital video recording capabilities  and functions. The advantage with digital television is the  that there is no encoding that is necessary or required in the digital video recorder since the signal is already transmitted in digital format encoded in the MPEG stream.

The digital video recorder simply stores the digital stream directly to the disk. Having a broadcaster involved  with , and sometimes subsidizing the design of the digital video recorder can lead to features such as the ability and capacity to use interactive television.

It can also facilitate pre-loading of programs or directly recording encrypted digital streams. The downside is that it can also  force the manufacturer to implement features that will prevent skipping advertisements or that will be able to counter the skipping features of advertisement in the digital video recorders. They may also have to develop recordings that will automatically expire.

Video recording still continues to mesmerize the masses. Take for example in 2003 many satellite and cable providers introduce the dual-tuner digital video recorders. These machines have two independent tuners within the same receiver. The main use for this feature  is the capability to record a live program while watching another live program simultaneously or to record two programs at the same time possibly while watching a previously recorded one.

There are instances even where the market has allowed free-to-air television to be recorded on a removable hard drive. There are also some dual tuner digital video recorders that have the ability to output two separate televisions sets at the same time. While others now even have triple tuners, so long as all the three channels are on the two multiplesexes and sometime even a single one.

Some of the formats of digital video recording include:

DVB digital television contains audio/visual signals that are broadcast over the air in a digital rather than analog format. The DVB data stream can be directly recorded by the DVR.

Recording satellite or digital cable signals on a digital video recorder can be more complex than recording analog signals or broadcast digital signals. There are several different transmission schemes, and the video streams may be encrypted to restrict access to subscribers only. A satellite or cable set-top box both decrypts the signal if encrypted, and decodes the MPEG stream into an analog signal for viewing on the television.

In order to record cable or satellite digital signals the signal must be captured after it has been decrypted but before it is decoded; this is how DVRs built into set-top boxes work. Cable and satellite providers often offer their own digital video recorders along with a service plan. These DVRs have access to the encrypted video stream, and generally enforce the provider’s restrictions on copying of material even after recording.

Many DVD-based DVRs have the capability to copy content from a source DVD. In the U.S. this is prohibited under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act if the disc is encrypted. Most such DVRs will hence not allow recording of video streams from encrypted movie discs.

A digital camcorder combines a camera and a digital video recorder. Some DVD-based DVRs incorporate connectors that can be used to capture digital video from a camcorder. Some editing of the resulting DVD is usually possible, such as adding chapter points.

Some digital video recorders can now record to solid state flash memory cards (called flash camcorders). They generally use secure digital cards, include wireless connections (bluetooth and WiFi) and can play swf files. There are some digital video recorders that combine video and graphics in real time to the flash card, such as the video logger from Racelogic which takes multiple camera inputs and GPS generated graphics and merges them into one video (or stores the GPS coordinates in the image data).

The future of TV advertisements

Digital video recorders are also changing the way television programs advertise products. Watching pre-recorded programs allows users to fast-forward through commercials, and some technology allows users to remove commercials entirely. This feature has been controversial for the last decade, with major television networks and movie studios claiming it violates copyright and should be banned.



With an improvement in the recording technology comes more user friendly and advance features and so does the relatively lower prices of owning the recording medium. From mass storage in boxes and cabinets, to mass storage in a single flash drive or memory card, the change and growth of the industry has been more than captivating.

The new high definition optical disc format may gradually replace the DVD format. Some analysts expect this to change to have a similar effect as that of the DVD on the video cassette recorder.

The 8mm format always used the video portion of the tape for sound, with an FM carrier between the band space of the chrominance and luminance on the tape. This was upgrade to stereo and later to Hi-Fi. Recent times saw the development of the Hi-Def recording and such is the development of video recording.

From tape recorder to digital video recorders, manual handling to automatic management, the phases of video recording have kept with the urges of people to present the best of what has happened, is happening, will happen in the best and most visually captivating way.

With improvement of the recording medium so has the change in the development of laws for them. In the United States for example, the FCC ruled that starting the 1st of July,  consumers would be able to purchase set-top box from a third party rather than being forced to purchase them or rent them from their cable their cable companies. This applied to navigation devices that are otherwise known as cable television set – top box and not the security functions that control the users’ access to the content of the cable operator.

The overall net effect of digital video recorders and their related technology is unlike to be substantial as the standalone digital video recorders are currently readily available to the open market.










Jenkins, H. “Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. Buying Into American Idol”

Stelter, B.(2008). “A Ruling May Pave the Way for Broader Use of DVR”. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Chaney, J. (2005).”Parting Words For VHS Tapes, Soon to Be Gone With the Rewind,” The Washington Post, August 28, 2005; p. N01.

1965 – Sony releases first home video equipment

Diehl, R.N. “Labguy’S World: The Birth of Video Recording”. Retrieved from

Analysis of UAE banks’ Employees turnover and profit in 2012

Analysis of UAE banks’ Employees turnover and profit in 2012






This paper analyzes the relationships between the UAE’s bank turnover and profit in 2012 using Minitab software (30 banks).

Bank Employees Turnover Profit
Qatar National Bank 13600 100784020 2314022
National Commercial Bank 2978 92085369 1763554
Emirates NBD 8450 83935843 695350
National Bank of Abu Dhabi 9700 81840231 1179479
Al Rajhi Banking Corporation 8451 71302017 2102588
National Bank of Kuwait 4985 58418947 1097624
Samba 4192 53126437 1155226
Kuwait Finance House 5241 52296998 438634
Riyad Bank 5421 50714890 924280
Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank 3154 49222903 765133
First Gulf Bank 2105 47654234 1130956
Banque Saudi Fransi 2660 42073947 804036
Saudi British Bank 5214 41773957 864084
Arab National Bank 3865 36437140 632314
Ahli United Bank 5452 29896422 377735
Dubai Islamic Bank 6897 25963708 324572
Arab Banking Corporation 1245 24527000 263000
Union National Bank 5480 23723918 436261
Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank 4587 23322776 327044
Commercial Bank of Qatar 1198 21988393 552828
Burgan Bank 1145 21257990 223176
Mashreq 4589 20795889 373165
Bank Muscat 2548 20554983 361574
Qatar Islamic Bank 3521 20107709 309256
Albaraka Bank Group 2451 19055131 235242
Saudi Hollandi 1795 18268137 334129
Gulf International Bank 1425 17704800 117900
Gulf Bank 1278 17238656 109860
Masraf Al Rayan 1635 16930875 417552
Saudi Investment Bank 1789 15751107 243210

Data analysis using Minitab

Opening Minitab I got this window

Entering data

I collected data from 30 banks in UAE and tabulated the data as shown above.

In C1 or column heading I entered banks (30 banks). In C2 I entered employees, C3 Turnover and C4 profit.


  1. Determining relationship between turnover and profit
  2. I clicked Graphs then scatterplot and this window opened. On clicking scatterplot this window appeared
  3. I selected Simple and clicked OK and this window appeared
  • I selected Employees to be Y variable and Profit as X variable.
  1. I selected and clicked OK and this graph appeared.
  2. When a line of best fit is drawn, it forms a line that slopes to the right. The results show that there exists a strong positive relationship between turnover and profit. Turnover and profit are thus directly related. An increase in turnover leads to increase in profit.

Determining the correlation between the two variables

  1. In determining correlation, I clicked Stat, Basic Statistics and then Correlation.
  2. The following windows appear
  • I selected Employees and then profit and clicked OK. The result of the correlation appeared
  1. When the correlation is 0.642 it shows that the two variables are directly related and when negative it shows a negative correlation.

When determining the correlation it further proved that there exists a strong positive correlation between the two variables, Turnover and profit. Pearson correlation of Turnover and Profit = 0.869. This is an indication that supposes turnover increases the profit also increases and vice versa.

On the analysis of relationship between employees and turnover, the same method was followed. However the following graph was obtained when scatterplot was generated.

The line of best fit was as follows

This indicates relationship though weaker than relationship between turnover and profit. The Pearson correlation of Employees and Profit = 0.642 and this is lower than 0.869. The analysis however indicated that there is a slightly weak positive relationship between employees and either profit of turnover. An increase in the number of increase led to slight increase in the company’s profit.

Analysis of Tylor’s “A Few Words about Disability”

Analysis of Tylor’s “A Few Words about Disability”

It is clear that the author of the article focuses on the external issues occupied in living with disability. One major issue-affecting persons living with disability is accessing medical care services (Warren, 2001). This was from an earlier study carried out on a sample of persons with disability. The author especially tries to target persons with spinal cord injuries with an establishment that the factor mainly affects such individuals. This is logically acceptable since spinal cord injuries surface themselves in concert with mobility difficulties. Other than being not able to go to health care facilities, denial of the services that they require is common. People mostly due to negative attitude and superstitions are reluctant to assist them. In fact, factual records support this argument as they prove that, persons with spinal cord injuries use anticipatory medical care services less frequently compared to unaffected persons.

The author agrees that persons with disabilities are not able to accept their condition fully. This is in accordance with a study conducted to show the impact of environment on disabled persons and facts drawn from the study were for people living around disabled persons. Additionally, facts from the study put to the fore that public bias has a crucial impact on disability (Niska, 2010). This is evident as in situations where the disabled persons perceive discrimination as an underrating by the society; they will probably have difficulties in accepting their disability. Logically, this discrimination lowers self-esteem of victims (Niska, 2010). Low or lack self-esteem makes the affected to withdraw from the public. On the other hand, family and friends provide with emotional and moral support. Therefore, self-acceptance and psychology stability of the disabled largely depend on how the affected perceive the treatment from the people around them (Tylor, 2002).

Condensed physical independence is associated with loneliness. This is especially because, individuals who are physically disabled lack adequate exposure to the society. Social activities are therefore uncommon to them and so are socialization skills. This article provides logistical proof from Hopps and Associates studies, which establishes the ratio between loneliness and social anxiety to be 66 (Tylor, 2002). The figure may not be fully accurate as, policies and communal projects reduce loneliness by enhancing social and physical environments for persons with disabilities. Per se, the ratio may also hold some logic in it since research shows that lonesome people have weaker bonds to the society and less connected to the community than people who are not lonely. The author cites the findings of the study especially for the disabled persons with a bias to assist them interact freely with other individuals people (Charlton, 2000).

The presentation of special facilities issue for disabled persons is with a lot of concern. This is because the author establishes that legislation of the issue was 18 years ago but implementation of the same is not evident. Primarily the author is targeting the government as it is upon their duties to provide special amenities, lack of such leads to disabled persons feeling demoralized. Per se, physically disabled persons using wheelchairs and walking carts require special parking lots, elevators in social buildings, special restaurant bathrooms, and special airline travel services (Joint, 2002). Desecration of these specifications is widely spread. The author assumes that, despite technological improvements for persons with disabilities, mobility of physically disabled persons is impossible in some environments. Improvement of such area would help the disabled persons engage more in social activities.


Joint .N. (2005). Disability Issues and Libraries: A Scottish Perspective. London:  Emerald Group Publishing.

Tylor.B.K. (2002). A Few Words about Disability. New Zealand: New Zealand Employment Service Publisher.

Niska. J. (2010) Pediatric Neuropsychology Case Studies. New York: Springer publishers

Charlton. I. J. (2000) Nothing About Us without Us: Disability Oppression and Empowerment. California: University of California Press.

Warren.B. (2001) Drama Games: Drama and Group Activities for Leaders Working with People of All Ages and Abilities. California: Captus Press

Titchkosky.T. (2011). The Question of Access: Disability, Space, Meaning. Toronto: university of Toronto.