Planning and Development Regular Meeting



Course No:


Planning and Development Regular Meeting

City Council

Venue: Council Chambers

Monday, October 22, 2012

The city council planned a meeting to discuss the city’s planning and development issues in the early month of October. It was held at the Council chambers and was scheduled to start at 7:15 pm. After a tending the meeting I learnt that several planning aspect had to be carefully discussed and highlighted for them to be successful. It came to light that cooperation of all departments beginning with designs, finances and city beneficiaries had to be in harmony before any planning and development actions can be made. Therefore by the first ten minutes of the city council’s planning meeting it was clear that administration and public works has to work together with planning and development committee.

Meeting structure

The meeting went smoothly from the beginning according to my observation, this is because it started exactly the time planned or started. Actually by twenty minutes into the scheduled starting time most guests had actually settled and were all ready to receive and hear the main speaker how was the mayor. The meeting began with a roll call from Alderman Tendam who wanted to take note of all the people attending the meeting, he also give a few apologies of the key city council members who had not attended. Though some members already had program sheets that explained the order of business, Alderman after the roll call requested that all the members present who did not have the sheet to be given. It is at this moment that I also gained access to the program sheet and took note of the detailed analysis of the meeting agenda. Towards the end of this city council meeting I realized that the meeting had actually gone as stated in the program and very little improvement could have been made. In fact, the only improvement that the meeting needed was on the time allocated for comments by citizens.

Meeting attendance

The meeting was attended by the city Mayor, City Manager, City Clerk, city council secretary (Alderman Tendam) and Citizens. All the members that attended had a major role to play, considering this meeting was a planning and development meeting most members were expected to contribute their ideas and responses to the issues raised. The mayor began the meeting with a bang after reading a proclamation of the success of the Bakery and Party shop that the council had started a few months ago. He also stated that the shop was still working on the pension issue but it finances were good and it was actually making profit. The mayor seemed to have brought life to the meeting; this is because the house was too quite after Alderman a had spoken. Alderman the council secretary had taken too much confirming the quorum by reading the roll call. After the mayor had spoken he invited the City Manager Ms. Suzette Robinson to give the public announcements. She is also the Director of Public Works and spoke of recent awards that the council had received. She pointed out that the council had received a “Bike Friendly Community Award” from League of American Bicyclist. She concluded her announcements by stating that all the recent awards were available in the council’s website and then invited City Clerk to provide communications information. The clerk was quite audible and gave an authoritative speech on how voting would be carried out towards the end of the meeting. He stated that since we could also all see the topics for discussion from our program sheets that were already provided, the meeting will mainly focus on those topics and any member including the citizens will be given an opportunity to voice their comments.

Agenda outcomes

After all the announcements and communication channels had been presented, those that had taken the designated participation sheets. The participation sheets had been issued to all who wanted to contribute to the topic in the agenda list. This provided a chance for the city council to give their presentations on the topics and also for the citizens to give their views on the contemporary issues. The first issue discussed was on the amending the approved planned development at Chicago Avenue. The city staff wanted the rest of the council and the citizens to approve the designed ordinance of the amending of the avenue that was adopted in may. The council staff wanted that the avenue to be improved to include Walgreen. The main aim of this planning strategy was to open up the other neighboring street to the main avenue. After several discussions on the issue relating to the finances required, reasons for the development and duration required. The team approved the avenue suggested planning details and decided that the avenue will be improved and all finances will be attained from the city councils developmental account. The second issue discussed was the amendment of the city code and civil service commission rules. The staff requested ordinance 62-0-12 to be approved, the ordinance provides review of Title 2 chapter 3 of the City Code. The ordinance suggests that the chapter to be revised by improving fire department hiring process, increasing role of commissioners associated new police officers and finally addressing the major human resources departments. This debate provided evidence that the city planning projects required excellent human resource to be successful. Ensuring the qualified employees were utilized the city council would actually be more efficient and successful. In conclusion, the city council’s meeting was a big success because it was not only orderly but also the issues raised were or great benefit to the city’s developmental plans.

Planning and decision making

Planning and decision making

Presented by


How does rational decision-making process help to overcome predispositions and biases that a manager has in a given decision making situation?

Rational decision-making process helps managers overcome predispositions and biases in a given decision-making process in the following manner. Rational thinking plays an essential role in allowing a manager to brainstorm about adapting a given alternative before making a final decision. Most biases found in organizations today are related to organization culture, actions towards certain activities and stability. Rational thinking makes a manager come up with effective decisions that favor every stakeholder in the organization. In addition, the use of rational thinking promotes togetherness because every staff in the organization takes part in the decision-making process. On the other hand, rational decision-making process eliminates instances where leaders fail in planning for better strategies by introducing consistency and discipline in workplaces preventing unusual activities that promote biases.

What is a rational decision?  

From the manager’s point of view, a rational decision is a form of decision making-process employed by organization manager whereby choices are made based on facts and justifiable reasons. In a rational decision, managers analyze different facts through proper review of available facts, relevant observations, and consideration of possible outcomes before making a final decision. Managers must choose the best alternative from different choices depending on the choice capable of solving the prevailing organizational problem (Eisenführ & Weber, 2010). In order to make a rational decision, organizational managers follow these six steps:

  • Definition of the problem
  • Identifying the decision criteria
  • Allocate weights to each criterion
  • Come up with alternatives
  • Evaluate the alternatives
  • Chose the best alternative

Can people make a truly rational decision?

People have the capability of making truly rational decision although they are limited to some factors.  Sometimes a manager might possess excellent decision-making process but get limitations from other things such as unlimited resources, or lack of enough capital to implement the best alternative. Time and money are the basics of all rational decision processes (Forman, 2012).


Forman, E. (2012, November 16). Rational Decision Making is Subjective Decision Making | Expert Choice. Expert Choice. Retrieved September 3, 2014, from

Eisenführ, F., & Weber, M. (2010). Rational decision making. Berlin: Springer.

Planning a Wedding Budget

Planning a Wedding Budget

Student’s name


According to Chatzky J (2008), the cost of planning a wedding has been on an upward trend for the past few years .he averages the cost to about $22,000 .regardless of this cost ,if one plans their wedding in time and appropriately they will save a lot of money and time. As much as  the wedding is a very important time in the life of an individual, they should take caution while planning  as the amount associated with can cause a big dent in any ones pocket. For any group of newly weds, they should always consider the amount they are spending on the wedding is worth while. They should take care not to take off with their marriage when in big debt just because they had a lavish wedding (Chatzky J 2008).


The wedding plan comes with a lot of costs and expense for it to be accomplished. These include: first is the cost of invitation cards. When ordering invitation cards ensure that you don’t use the big cards as this will increase the cost of postage of the card. Sometimes, if people have the knowledge and time, they can come up with their own cards to save on the cost. Secondly, the venue is also an aspect to consider in costing. For one to save on the cost, they should look for venues that are in the natural setting. This will cut down on the charges of having to hire the seats, tents and other equipment needed at the venue. Thirdly, the number of guests invited also determines the cost of the wedding. Thus for one to reduce the cost, they should consider lowering the numbers as low as possible. Other costs include the entertainment at the venue. This cost can be reduced by hiring music systems as opposed to using of a live band tat is far much expensive. Another aspect tat adds to cost of the wedding is the decorations and floral arrangement. These include the lights and potted plants. For one to save on the cost they should use the locally available materials that are in plenty at the time. Choose the cheapest materials that can bring out what you desire. Consequently there are other costs like the taking of photos. This can be done by the family members. Only those photos that need expert attention should be taken by the qualified photographers that you hire. Other expenses in the wedding may include the cost of beer and refreshments. To cut on the cost of the refreshments, one should also order the drinks from whole sale stalls .the champagne can also be done away with as this is not necessity. The table arrangement can also be used as a tool to save on the cost. The wedding planner should come up with large tables that can accommodate more people to save on the number f tables and the amount of table cloths to be used. (Chatzky J 2008).

The desired outcomes of good wedding will thus include: low cost of the wedding. Others include the satisfaction of both the quests and the people wedding. The success of a good wedding can be gauged on its smooth flow without any interruptions and hitches. The underlying concept behind planning a wedding is to ensure that the occasion is as memorable as possible and the couples live happily ever after. This life after wedding should be without the worries of having to settle the bills that accrued from the cost of the wedding. According to Tuterra David, the performance criteria of a weeding well planed is to see a guest go home having learned something new from the wedding and have the felling that they went to a very touching wedding. (Jason, 2011)


From the above discussion planning a wedding is not a child’s play. It involves a lot of preparation both financially and emotionally for one to succeed. As much as budgeting is hard and challenging, anyone who comes up with a successful wedding plan is always respected for that.


Chatzky J (2008).How to plan a wedding on a budget 


Jason Frugal Dad, (2011) Planning a Wedding on a Budget


Assess Environmental Health, and Complementary Therapies in Pediatrics

Will need minimum of 300 words, APA Style, double spaced, times new roman, font 12, and Include: (3 references within years 2015-2018) with intext citations.

Topic: Assessment of Environmental Health, and Complementary Therapies in Pediatrics  (I chose Lead poisoning)


This week, there will be a variety of conditions assigned to you by your instructor pertaining to environmental health conditions. You are expected to present your initial topic including, but not limited to, the following items:


Use the below headings while answering the questions.

  • Pathophysiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Physical exam findings
  • Differential diagnoses and rationale
  • Management plan to include diagnostic testing, medications if applicable, follow-up plans and referrals if needed

Assess Environmental Health, and Complementary Therapies in Pediatrics

Will need minimum of 300 words, APA Style, double spaced, times new roman, font 12, and Include: (3 references within years 2015-2018) with intext citations.

Topic: Assessment of Environmental Health, and Complementary Therapies in Pediatrics  (I chose Lead poisoning)


This week, there will be a variety of conditions assigned to you by your instructor pertaining to environmental health conditions. You are expected to present your initial topic including, but not limited to, the following items:


Use the below headings while answering the questions.

  • Pathophysiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Physical exam findings
  • Differential diagnoses and rationale
  • Management plan to include diagnostic testing, medications if applicable, follow-up plans and referrals if needed

Title: Planning a Health promotion program: Needs Assessment



Title: Planning a Health promotion program: Needs Assessment




Date: August 17, 2013


 Planning a Health promotion program


This is a plan to provide health promotion services to less advantaged populations. By less advantaged populations, I mean people who are not well educated, earn low incomes and most likely live in the same neighborhoods.


Health and quality of life problems faced by less advantaged populations


Members of less advantaged populations face various challenges on a daily basis; most of them are not formally employed and do odd jobs to make ends meet. Due to the low income earned by members of less advantaged populations their health is certainly affected. They are unable to eat a healthy diet and most of the times end up consuming fast foods since they are cheaper for them. Another reason they prefer fast foods in because of the nature of their daily activities, they are always on the move from one point to another looking for jobs. This affects the time they have to prepare a good meal that is healthy for them.


Due to this unhealthy lifestyle they are more prone to obesity and being overweight. This is the major health challenge for them. They are also more likely to suffer stress due to the hard nature of their life, always trying to make ends meet and facing many challenges.


Behavioral factors that influence this health problem

Obesity is mainly caused by lifestyle choices by members of other populations; however in this population it has many other causes. Lack of knowledge on how to live a healthy life and the benefits of eating a healthy diet is a major cause of obesity and other lifestyle health problems in this population.


In my intervention, it would provide the needed knowledge to members of these populations. With knowledge on healthy lifestyles and how to deal with stress they will be able to make more informed decisions. Eating habits are possible to change and through this direct intervention, members of these communities will be well equipped with the right information regarding their health.


Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing factors


A factor that leads and cause members of these populations to suffer from obesity and other lifestyle health problems is the availability of time to prepare healthy meals. The nature of their jobs does not allow for adequate time to prepare healthy meals.


Their food environment also encourages the behavior of preferring fast foods to healthy food. There are more fast food joints in their neighborhoods than stores that sell fresh healthy foods.


Circumstances that hinder intervention


Members of these populations are not well educated and do not qualify to get well-paying jobs. Lack of well-paying jobs leads to them leaving an unhealthy lifestyle. Lack of knowledge is also a major factor that leads to unhealthy eating.


In conducting the study


I used real life situations and the study was from interactions with members of this populations. Primary sources of data include interviews that provide first hand experiences and filling in of questionnaires. Data was gathered through one on one interaction with less advantaged people and a week of living with them to share their daily lives.

Secondary sources of data would include peer reviewed journals on the same field, with preference to diet and environment.


In conclusion


Obesity is a health problem that is a major challenge in the less advantaged populations. It can be dealt with by providing the right information regarding diet and healthy lifestyles.




Healthy food, farms & families: Hunger 2007, 17th annual report on the state of world hunger.. (2007). Washington, DC: Bread for the World Institute.


Power, M. L., & Schulkin, J. (2009). The evolution of obesity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Nakaya, A. C. (2006). Obesity: opposing viewpoints. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.





Planned Organizational Change

Planned Organizational Change


Abstract. 1

Introduction. 1

Difficulties in Planned Organizational Change. 2

Awareness of the Importance of Change. 3

Change Barriers. 5

Motivation towards Change. 5

Overcoming Difficulties. 6

Conclusion. 8


Planned organizational change is necessary for the survival of any organization in tits respective industry. The identification of potential threats and problems facilitates the development of strategies towards organizational change, which is necessary for the organization (Robertson et al., 1993). However, implementing the planned organizational changes may be faced with numerous difficulties ranging from the identification of the necessary skills and knowledge for change, to the identification and elimination of potential barriers towards this change. For that reason, there is a need for the identification of the procedures through which these difficulties can be overcome. The successful implementation of planned organizational change is dependent on the organizations ability to overcome these difficulties.

Key Words: Planned Organizational Change, Difficulties, Overcoming Difficulties


The survival of organizations in their respective industries is highly dependent on their ability to adapt to their respective environments. Organizational environments maybe external or internal and they are subject to constant changes, which the organization needs to acclimatize (Newman, 2000). Accordingly, structural organizational changes act as the strategic responses to the changing environment.  Organizations may amend their strategies, structures, and procedures as a reaction to the changing environments, so as to ensure that the organization carries out its operational activities as expected, with minimal interference (Lewis, 2011).  Organizational change occurs in various ways ranging from remedial change to planned organizational change.  Each of these changes comes as a reaction to the turbulent environmental changes, and they are developed to serve particular organizational needs. More specifically, planned organizational change is one of the most common organizational changes that occur in the organization.

Planned organizational change occurs when those in management identify the need for change in the organization, and proactively develop a plan for change in the organization. Planned organizational change occurs when organizations develop strategies that are aimed at combating assumed future threats and problems to the organization (Robertson et al., 1993). This is much different from the unplanned organizational change, which comes as a reaction to the organizational experience of these threats and problems. As researchers would argue, the proactive nature of planned organizational change makes the process vulnerable to plenty of problems. This, in turn, implies a difficulty in the implementation process, which may require the development of additional strategies to deal with these difficulties. The identification of potential difficulties and the strategies to overcome these difficulties is essential for organizations intending to, successfully, execute planned organizational change (Jones, 2003).

This paper examines the process and procedures of planned organizational change. More specifically, the paper highlights some of the difficulties experienced in implementing planned organizational change, as well as, the procedures to overcome these difficulties.

Difficulties in Planned Organizational Change

As previously mentioned, the proactive nature of planned organizational change may make it difficult to implement in the organization. This is because planned organizational change does not occur as a reaction to existing problems and threats, and instead occurs as a preventative measure for possible organizational threats and problems (Robertson et al., 1993). Accordingly, planned organizational change may be received with plenty of resistance, which may make the implementation of planned organizational change difficult. Researchers have identified four main difficulties in the implementation of planned organizational change including awareness of the importance of change, identification of the required knowledge and skill for the execution of change, removal of change barriers, and motivating individuals to change (Jones, 2003).

Awareness of the Importance of Change

The first and most notable difficulty of managed planned organizational change is the creation of awareness on the importance of the change. According to recent studies on the issue, most individuals may not be aware of the reasons behind the planned change, thus making it difficult for the implementation to take place (Collins, 1998) Employees, as well as, the stakeholders in the organization need to understand why planned organizational change is required. This means that they need to understand the significance of planned organizational change for the organization. The creation of awareness on the importance of planned organizational change becomes a difficulty for the organization because most people do not understand the importance of change. The lack of understanding, in turn, prevents individuals from carrying out their activities towards the implementation of this change (Robertson et al., 1993). Additionally, others may work towards the implementation of these changes, but their lack of understanding prevents them from executing it accordingly. According to Newman, most individuals who are charge with the responsibility of change are unaware of the significance of this change, and for that reason, there is a limitation to the successful implementation of the planned organizational change (Newman, 2000).

Identification of the Required Knowledge and Skill for the Execution of Change

Planning for organizational change is an easy procedure as it relies on a theoretical framework for the identification of threats and problems, as well as, the procedures for the prevention of this (Jones, 2003). However, the practical aspect of the process makes it difficult, in the sense that it requires a various commitment for proper implementation. One such practical aspect is the identification of the required skill and knowledge for the execution of change. As researchers explain, planning for change requires the identification of the necessary knowledge and skill required for the successful implementation of the change (Newman, 2000). All those involved in the process of change need to be equipped with the knowledge of the process of change, as well as, have the skills necessary to implement this. For example, if the organization identifies the fluctuation of prices as a potential threat to the organization, those involved with the process of change need to have knowledge of the implications of this to the organization. Additionally, these individuals also need to posses the skills required to deal with such changes in the organization. The identification of the necessary skills and knowledge for the implementation of planned organizational change is a difficult process for planned organizational change, and most organizations have failed in the successful application of this (Bruhn et al., 2001). Organizations may have a clear vision of what they intend to achieve through the planned organization change, but they more often than not, fail in recognizing the knowledge and skills required for this. For that reason, organizations tend to fail in implementing the planned organizational change because those involved to not have the skill and knowledge required for change.

Change Barriers

Another difficulty in planned organizational change is the existence of barriers of the changes that have been planned to take place. Planned organizational change is focused on eliminating potential organizational barriers, and for that reason, is it easy for organizations to miss out on recognizing the barriers towards the change in itself (Robertson et al., 1993). Most organizations have the tendency to develop strategies for the elimination of possible threats and problems, but they lack the ability to eliminate barriers to the planned organizational change (Newman, 2000). For example, an organization may develop a good strategy for the prevention of competition by new entrants; however, it may lack the ability to identify a barrier such as employee intransigence towards the implementation of these strategies. This is common in most organizations, especially since the barriers to implementation of change are quite hard to identify. Such barriers are complex and unpredictable, making the implementation of planned organizational change very difficult for organizations (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002). It is therefore crucial that those charged with the responsibility of implementing change have the ability to identify potential barriers to change for the successful implementation of change.

Motivation towards Change

The last and most common difficulty of planned organizational change is the motivation of individuals towards change. As most organizations would testify, motivating individuals, especially those in subordinate positions is a difficult process when it comes to the implementation of planned organizational change. For planned organizational change to be successful, employees and other key players in the process need to be motivated towards the implementation of these changes (Bruhn et al., 2001). This motivation is in line with the creation of awareness of planned organizational change and those involved in the process need to demonstrate a want and need to achieve these changes for the organization. Motivation towards change becomes a difficulty in the process of planned organizational change because most organizations lack the ability to, properly, motivate their employees towards the change (Newman, 2000). In most cases, those in management provide a layout of how things should be done, and the rationale behind the change. However, they fail to motivate the key players in the pioneering if change in the organization. This, in turn, deters the process of change in the organization, which prevents the organization from attaining its goals and objectives especially in relation to the implementation of planned organizational change.

Overcoming Difficulties

Having mentioned some of the difficulties of planned organizational change, it is evident that there is a need for the establishment of methods to overcome such difficulties. Overcoming difficulties in planned organizational change is the only means through which any organization may successfully implement the strategies towards change (Jones, 2003). For that reason, researchers have identified the need for the establishment of support elements so as to overcome such difficulties. Accordingly, some of the methods that have been identified to overcome these difficulties include the establishment of a pragmatic project plan, the development of internal change agents, the establishment of an organization structure for the implementation of change , development of communication and training plans for employees and the removal of barriers in planned organizational change (Bordia et al., 2004). The establishment of a pragmatic plan ensures that all key players in the change process are provided with comprehensive information regarding the changes to take place (Newman, 2000). This assists them to understand the importance of the planned organizational change, as well as, equip them with the required skill and knowledge regarding the process of change. The establishment of an organizational structure for the implementation and management of change is necessary for the selection of individuals with the right knowledge and skill for the implementation of change. Each of those selected for the implementation of the planned organizational change is given a specific responsibility that is in line with the implementation of the planned changes (Bruhn et al., 2001). In relation to this, overcoming the difficulties of planned organizational change also requires a solicitation of internal change agents. This ensures motivation for all the key players in the implementation of change, as well as, the identification of individuals with certain skills necessary for the implementation of change.

The establishment of a communication and training plan is also another way of combating the difficulties in planned organizational change. Not only does it ensure proper communication between the different parties involved regarding the implementation of change; it also assures the organization of having the necessary skills required for the implementation of planned organizational change (Robertson et al., 1993). A communication plan is necessary for the creation of awareness regarding the importance of the planned organizational change. The training plan, on the other hand, is used to train the employees and other stakeholders, thus providing them with the necessary skills for change implementation. Conclusively, another way of overcoming some of the difficulties in implementing planned organizational change is the elimination of the barriers of change (Jones, 2003). This involves the identification of possible barriers of change, and the development of the necessary action steps for the elimination of these barriers.


Planned organizational change is an essential tool of survival in most organizations. For that reason, it is imperative that organizations recognize some of the difficulties that may be experienced in when implementing the strategies towards planned organizational change. The recognition of these difficulties will assist organizations in the development of additional strategies to overcome these difficulties. It is only through the identification of difficulties in the implementation of planned organization change and the development of strategies to overcome these difficulties can organizations successfully implement the change they require.


Bordia, P. et al. 2004, Uncertainty during Organizational Change: Types, Consequences, and

Management Strategies, Journal of Business and Psychology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 507-532.

Bruhn, J. G. et al. 2001, Ethical Perspectives on Employee Participation in Planned

Organizational Change: A Survey of Two State Public Welfare Agencies, Public Performance & Management Review vol. 25, no. 2, 208-228.

Collins, D. 1998, Organizational Change: Sociological Perspectives. Routledge, United


Jones, G. N. 2003, Planned Organizational Change: A Study in Change Dynamics, Routledge,

United Kingdom.

Lewis, L. K. 2011, Organizational Change: Creating Change through Strategic

Communication, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Newman, K. 2000, Organizational Transformation during Institutional Upheaval, The Academy

of Management Review, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 602-619.

Robertson, P. J. et al. 1993, Dynamics of Planned Organizational Change: Assessing Empirical

Support for a Theoretical Model, The Academy of Management Journal vol. 36, no. 3, pp.


Tsoukas, H. & Chia, R. 2002, On Organizational Becoming: Rethinking Organizational

Change, Organization Science, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 567-582.



Name of Student


Hospitals provide a range of important services to people who live close to their vicinity. The hospitals offer functions such as outpatient care, and various inpatient services including maternity. Labor and delivery is a department of the maternity unit. The various services require a delicate balance of financial resources of the hospitals. However, the funds available to the hospital institution are limited at times. It, therefore, means that the available units will have to share the scarce funds. Highly sensitive units such as Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of the hospitals’ are sometimes given priority over maternity unit when funds are a result of low funding; the departments in the maternity unit are not able to facilitate their duties.

The labor and delivery department at ABC’s Medical Center is highly affected by the acute shortage of funds. Consequently, it has become hard for the medical doctors and nurses to provide quality care to the expectant women. Most of the time, the labor, and delivery department lacked a continuous stream of reliable drugs, medical equipment, and supplies. In light of this, the infant mortality rate at ABC Medical Center has been on the increase in the recent past. The number of women seeking maternity services at ABC Medical Center has also decreased significantly.

In order to bring back the confidence in its labor and delivery department, the ABC Medical Center should come up with innovative ways of funding its departments. The money they receive from the government is not adequate to cater for its diverse needs. One of the innovative ways it can employ to come up with extra funds is to attract and target a large number of paying patients. ABC Medical Center’s vision is to provide high value integrated medical services that put focus on the patient. By attracting a large number of paying patients, ABC Medical Center will boost the funds it gets from the government (Behavioral Change Theory, n.d.). The improved financial resources will enable it provide high value, patient-centered and integrated services in line with its vision. Its mission reflects a medical facility committed to the provision of excellent patient care and service to the community.

In order to serve the increased number of paying patients, ABC Medical Center will have to improve the efficiency of its systems. The labor and delivery department will get adequate funds to acquire new equipment and expand the services it offers to expectant women. The increased efficiency will create more value and improve the service and patient care it offers to the community (Behavioral Change Theory, n.d.).

Hospitals are required to observe a high level of professional standards. To maintain some standards where the patients are handled and treated with professionalism, the medical center has to provide a conducive environment for its staff to perform their duties. If the hospital increases the number of the paying patients, it will improve its financial base. The improved financial base enables the hospital to provide a conducive workplace for its staff to conduct their duties and achieve high standards of professionalism (Johnson, 2009).

To implement this change at ABC Medical Center, Kurt Lewin’s Model of Change theory is employed to move from relying on the funds it gets from the government to raising its own source of funds by targeting a large number of paying patients. Applying the Lewin’s theory is beneficial as it helps the hospital conduct the analysis required and manage the change that will occur. Lewin’s Model of Change theory is a rational theory. It is oriented to achieving the plans and goals that an organization set out to accomplish. ABC Medical Center has set out for itself the enormous task of increasing its revenue streams and improving the service delivery to its patients (Robin, 2003 p. 20-31). To achieve its planned goals, the medical center has to be ready for a change, a transition period and seek to establish stability once the change has been affected. It will unfreeze itself from dependence on the funds it receives from the government.

ABC Medical Center can organize the necessary steps like advertising, increasing efficiency and expanding the services it offers to attract the paying patients. After taking these actions, it should strive to maintain the new status quo. Therefore, in choosing the Lewin’s theory the medical center will be able to control, direct and manage the change it seeks to achieve (Robin, 2003, p. 34-46).

To facilitate the change, Western (2010) point out the following useful steps:

  • Give a definition of the changes that one expects to achieve. A person makes notes by writing the desired goal. The goal for the ABC Medical Center is to increase its revenue sources by targeting the paying patients.
  • Conduct a brainstorming exercise to identify the driving forces. These driving forces are the ones that are responsible for pushing an organization or individual to effect a change. The driving forces identified in the medical center include the need to improve funding to its labor and delivery department to acquire new equipment, supplies, and drugs.
  • Conduct a brainstorming exercise to identify the restraining forces. These restraining forces are ones, which are responsible for holding the individual or organization status quo. The medical center has relied on the funds it gets from the government to operate for many years. Due to this, ABC Medical Center’s management may be reluctant to try out other innovative methods of raising the cash.
  • From the brainstorming exercises, both the restraining forces and the driving forces are evaluated basing on their strengths and weaknesses. An individual may take a deeper look into the favorable and unfavorable forces and evaluate the impacts of raising excess funds through paying patients and relying on the funds from the government.
  • A further review of all the forces involved is done. The in individual in this step wants to identify the force (raising extra funds from paying patients or government funds) that can be influenced and possess a degree of flexibility.
  • A strategy is formulated by deciding on which of the forces will be strengthened or weakened. For ABC Medical Center, the driving force will be strengthened by improving the services on offer at the medical center, acquiring new equipment, and aggressive advertising.
  • From the strategy formulated, the steps, which will have the greatest impact, are prioritized, and the action step is drafted.

At the top of the management structure at ABC Medical Center, is the Board of Directors. They make decisions that involve the day-to-day running of the medical facility. They will initiate the change. The management of the change is on a shared basis. It will involve all the employees at the medical center. In particular, the doctors and nurses will have to improve on the quality of service delivered to the patients and communicate with the management on the need of getting a reliable and constant supply of drugs and other medical supplies and equipment.


 “Behavioral Change Theory.” Retrieved July 3, 2014, from   

Johnson, J. (2009). Health Organizations: Theory, Behavior, and Development. Sudbury,         Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Robbins, S. (2003). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Western, S. (2010). What do we mean by Organizational Development? Krakow: Krakow:                       Advisio Press

Plane Crashes and Their Contributing Factors 4

  Why Planes Crash

Plane Crashes and Their Contributing Factors     4


Human factors play a vital roll in aviation operations and are a contributing factor in most aviation accidents, it is impossible however to blame plane crashes on one reason since events leading up to an accident are so varied.  Reasoning for plane crashes can be placed in a broad number of categories.  Even though plane crashes can be quite tragic, much can be learned from each accident to over all decrease the number of accidents and deaths that occur in aviation.  I will discuss and give examples of some of the most common reasons why airplanes crash and show that most plane crashes are a result of human error in combination with other contributing factors. 


Plane crashes occur for a number of reasons.  There seems to be a consensus with the general public that flying is dangerous, engines fail and planes crash.  That is true some times, although the majority of plane crashes occur largely due to a combination of human or pilot error and other factors.  Some of the other major reasons for plane crashes that I will touch on are the environment, mechanical failure, poor maintenance, improper procedure or no procedure for the circumstances for that matter.  All of these can be deciding factors in the safe operation of an aircraft; most of the time however they go hand in hand with pilot error.  


Environmental conditions play a vital part in aviation as a whole. Much planning goes into a flight based on the current and forecast weather conditions for safety reasons.  This is due largely because of the number of accidents that have occurred due to planes flying in bad weather such as thunderstorms with low level wind sheer, lightning, hale, icing conditions and poor visibility.  Poor weather can be very dangerous to flight but most accidents can be avoided if the right precautions are taken to avoid potential bad weather situations.


                                                           Plane Crashes and Their Contributing Factors    5   


On August 2, 1985 a Delta L-1011 departed Fort Lauderdale in route to Dallas / Fort Worth.  While approaching the airport the flight crew noticed lightning coming from a storm cell directly in their flight path.  The crew was aware of the potential danger of low level wind sheer or micro bursts associated with thunderstorms but they continued their approach in to Dallas / Fort Worth.   The first officer piloted the L-1011 in to the rain; increasing headwind caused the aircraft to balloon above the glide slope.  The experienced captain recognized the first sign of wind sheer and began issuing instructions to the first officer. Soon after, the aircraft was hit by a downburst which caused it to lose 44 knots of IAS in 10 seconds then immediately after that, the airplane was hit with intense wind gusts which turned the plane almost completely sideways.  At that point the crew could no longer regain control of the L-1011.  The aircraft struck the ground at 170 knots killing 134 on board (Jeppeson).  Is this accident a result of poor weather or bad judgment of the flight crew for steering the plane into severe weather?  A combination of poor weather and pilot error caused this tradgedy.  As a result of this accident low level wind sheer alert systems (LLWAS) have been installed in strategic locations at many airports to detect variances in wind readings.  This alerts flight crews and ATC of the presence of downbursts.


Another very dangerous weather condition that has caused planes to crash is icing.  Icing is a condition in which ice forms along  an aircrafts leading edges.  The ice disrupts the flow of air over the airfoil decreasing its ability to maintain lift and at the same time increasing drag and weight.  ATR-72’s and Embraer 120 aircraft offer prime examples of some weather related crashes.  Since the 80’s several accidents have occurred due to the build up of ice on the wings of these aircraft.


                                                Plane Crashes and Their Contributing Factors    6                


Deicing equipment is installed on most transports today, however much is still to be learned about icing.  People continue to study the effects of icing in wind tunnels although it is very difficult for them to simulate different icing conditions.  


January 13, 1982 an Air Florida 737 crashed into the Potomac River in Washington D.C. when the crew forgot to turn on the deicing equipment.  The NTSB investigation concluded that the combination of the crew’s use of thrust reverse on the ground for push back, and their failure to active the engine anti-ice system caused the crash. By failing to activate the engine anti-ice system, large amounts of snow and ice that were sucked into the engines during reverse thrust was allowed to remain there.  Ice built up on the compressor inlet pressure probe, which measures engine power. As a result instrument indications in the cockpit showed an Engine Pressure Ratio of 2.04, while the power plants were in reality only producing 1.70 EPR, or about 70% of available power. The combination of the ice covered wings and low power caused an immediate stall on takeoff killing 74 people.  In this accident both procedure and weather were the main contributing factors.  This accident could have been avoided if proper procedure was followed in deicing. 


On September 8, 1997, USAir Flight 427 was on approach to the Pittsburgh International Airport. The aircraft was at 6,000 feet and 190 knots when it encountered the wake turbulence from a preceding B727.  Approximately three seconds after encountering the wake vortex the 737’s rudder suddenly moved to a full-left position.


                                            Plane Crashes and Their Contributing Factors    7


The aircraft began to yaw and roll left and the nose began to drop.  As the crew


attempted to regain control of the aircraft, the roll and yaw continued and the nose continued to drop.  Approximately 23 seconds later after the onset of the full rudder deflection, the aircraft impacted the ground in a nearly vertical attitude completely out of control. 


An investigation of the accident did reveal several anomalies.  The Boeing 737 rudder control system may have caused the aircraft’s rudder to fully deflect without crew input or to move opposite to the crew’s input.  From this, US Airways concluded that the probable cause of the accident was an un commanded full rudder deflection or rudder reversal that placed the aircraft in a position from which recovery was impossible using techniques known at the time.  With more knowledge and training is it fair to say this accident could have been avoided?  Procedure has changed since this and other accidents and incidents.  Pilots today are trained to regain control of an aircraft in the event of full rudder deflection.  Again there is more then one contributing factor in this incident.  No procedure to follow in the event of a rudder deflection and mechanical failure. 


An example which clearly defines a failure to follow procedure (poor maintenance) is American Airlines DC-10, Flight 191.  Chicago, May 25, 1979 while on its takeoff role the number one engine of AAL191 began to come apart before finally tearing itself completely from the airplane.  By this time it was too late for the pilot to abort the takeoff.  The airplane reached V1 climbed to approximately 300 feet and suddenly banked to the left impacting the ground killing all 271 aboard and 2 on the ground.  There was obvious mechanical failure with this aircraft however the main




                                            Plane Crashes and Their Contributing Factors    8


contributing factor to the engine separating itself from the aircraft was improper maintenance.  Mechanics were servicing engines by removing them from the airplane with forklifts, in turn damaging the pylon where the engine is mounted.  From this example you can see how vital proper procedure in maintenance can be in deciding the fate of an aircraft.


The Value Jet crash in 1986 was caused by the maintenance crew improperly storing oxygen generators.  These generators ignited shortly after takeoff causing a fire which burned through control cables.  The aircraft rolled uncontrollably and crashed into the Everglades.  This crash was a direct result of poor maintenance and failure to follow guidelines and procedure. 


From these examples I have given you get an idea of how plane crashes usually do not occur for one reason. There is always a chain of events and multiple contributing factors leading up to the disaster.  Plane crashes are tragic.  They take lives in a horrifying fashion.  At the same time flight is an amazing science that will only get safer as time goes on. Aviation is still relatively young and the hard truth is through every plane crash we learn more and more about the environment, maintenance, aviation science and human factors.  Also policies and procedures are constantly changing as we learn more. We must continue to strive for success in aviation because flying is still the safest form of travel.








·              Collier M.  (June 9, 2002)   

                     R&D Magazine Volume 40 Pg.20-21


·           Easley R. (February 2003)

                                 New Scientist Volume 177 Pg.30-33


·             Jeppesen / Private Pilot Manual Pg.6-52, 6-53

                           Jeppesen Sanders Inc. 2002


·           National Transportation Safety Board web sight



What is the value of liberal arts in Nursing Education?

Need 1 page with APA reference by Monday, May 21st 8am pacific time

Prompt: Is there evidence for caring in nursing practice? After reading Ch. 7 in Smith Turkel and Wolf, what piece of evidence do you find significant/intriguing for your nursing practice? What is the value of liberal arts in Nursing Education? Who are the contributors to nursing science? Are any of these contributors familiar to you?

Book link for this course:

Smith, M. C. & Turkel, M. C. (2012).

Caring in nursing classics: An essential resource.

New York, NY:

Springer Publishing.

ISBN: 978-0826171115

Book link from google:

Watson, J. (2008).The philosophy and science of caring, revised edition. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.

Book link from google: