Introduction

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Introduction

While the character John Wright, a farmer by profession lies down on his bed to get some sleep, someone sneaks in to his room in the middle of the night and murders him by strangling him to death with a rope (Glaspell 1-24). Minnie Wright, the farmer’s wife is the number one suspect for the murder and the play centers on figuring this out. Composed in the year 1916, the play, Trifles, by Susan Glaspell is a one-act play with John and Minnie Wright as the two main characters. The story is based on actual events that took place in Susan’s earlier years. The play consists of three sequential parts, all of which try to elucidate the events that led to the murder of John Wright.

This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the play, Trifles, by Susan Glaspell. Specifically, the paper examines the themes of patriarchal domination and female identity as brought out in the play by Susan Glaspell.

Trifles

By Susan Glaspell

As previously mentioned, the play, Trifles, by Susan Glaspell, is a play centered on discovering the murderer of John Wright. Together with the authorities and a group of friends, his wife Minnie, who is also the main suspect in the case, engage in a search of the house to identify the possible clues regarding his murder. Arguably, the play, Trifles is concerned about the relationship between men and women in society today (Keller 3). The author intends to use this play to communicate the different gender perceptions that individuals have in society and how this has affected their treatment in society. The relationship between men and women is brought out in different ways, and the characters in the play are used to accentuate how the two genders communicate, and perceive each other. The way the search is conducted in the house also shines a light on the relationship between the two genders, as the men dismiss searching female places and women are persisted in searching throughout the house for the discovery of what happened. Accordingly, two main concepts or themes are brought out in the play with regards to the relationship between men and women. These concepts include, patriarchal domination and female identity, and they are used to illustrate how the two genders related to each other in the play.

Patriarchal Domination

The male characters in the play, Trifles, even the deceased John Wright, portray a sense of self-importance, which they use to impose their ideas on the female characters. At the outset, patriarchal domination is brought out in the way the male characters give the female characters their identities by virtue of the relationship between men and women (Keller 11-13). The men do not believe that women can obtain their identity through their own unique personalities and for that reason have to rely on the men to achieve this. Patriarchal domination is also brought out in the naming of each of the characters, especially the female characters. While men maintain their own names after marriage, women are forced to take up their spouse’s names, which illustrates how these men have managed to dominate over women in the play (Keller 11-13). Additionally, the men are looked out to as sources of law and authority, thus building on the concept of patriarchal dominance in the play. The author depicts men as the serious-minded, and law minded individuals, granting them permission to conduct all the investigations regarding the murder of John (Keller 11-13). Additionally, male superiority in the play is so insidious that the men find comfort in disparaging the women’s curiosity regarding the murder. During the play, one of the male characters is quick to state that women are considerably inconsistent and intolerant to involve themselves in important issues (Glaspell 13). Patriarchal domination in the play is also brought out in the way the investigations are conducted throughout the play. Men accord themselves with so much superiority and self-confidence that they believe the only proper investigations that are to be carried out need to be done by the men. For that reason, the conclusion they reach regarding the murder of Wright appears as biased and inconclusive.

Female Identity

Closely related to patriarchal domination, another concept that has been brought out in the play, Trifles, revolves around female identity. Evidently, the female characters have lost their identities to their male counterparts (Keller 11-13). This comes as a result of the pompous male attitude regarding women and their roles in society. Because of this attitude, women have lost their ability to assert themselves, losing their unique identities, and being shut out of making important decisions. For example, in the play, the male characters state that, Mrs. Peters, the sheriff’s wife is married to the law because of the sheriff’s occupation (Glaspell 20). This illustrates how the female characters have lost their identities. However, the female identity is also, in a way, brought out as being superior to that of the men. This is clearly illustrated in the way the women carry out their investigations, as they are keen on finding out everything that may have led to the murder without any disregard like the men.

Conclusion

Glaspell’s play, Trifles, can be argued as being a feminist play. This is because the play is centered on showing the relationship between men and women, with this relationship being brought out as heinous. Men exercise dominance over their women, and for that reason, the women lose their identities in the process (Keller 11-13). In a way, the play encourages women to assert themselves much more for the betterment of their lives.

Work Cited

Glaspell, Susan. Trifles. United Kingdom: Walter H. Baker, 2010. Print.

Keller, Mathias. Symbolic Realism in Susan Glaspell’s ‘Trifles’. Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2007.

Print.

Analysis of the play, “Our Town”

Analysis of the play, “Our Town”

Introduction

Stage plays have occupied a fundamental part of the entertainment industry. It goes without saying that the playwrights explored the issues that they felt were vital to them and to the society at large. This was all in an effort to effect lasting change in the societies in which they lived. Needless to say, there were variations as to the popularity of playwrights, as well as their works. Nevertheless, Thornton Wilder came as one of the most popular playwrights in his times. While a large number of works may have been responsible for the popularity, “Our Town” comes as one of the most famous or popular plays of its time.

Our Town” refers to a 3-play act and character story pertaining to average citizens of a town in early 20th century as shown via their everyday lives. It is set in a fictional community, in Grover’s Corners in New Hampshire (Wilder, 1938). The play is narrated by the stage manager, who is entirely aware of the relationship between him and the audience. In essence, he is free to break the wall and address the audience directly, something that he does on a number of occasions.

As much as the play does a commendable job in exhibiting the three different features of the life of an individual, it does not develop its characters adequately. In essence, the broad generalizations that the play implies unfairly label the readers into conforming to the notion that the author was critiquing (Lumley, 1967). Moreover, the play is extremely broad in its criticism of people’s lives, something that creates a deficiency of a clear message in the play.

In addition, the play presents the readers with a view of the characters that is limited by the time and what the stage manager can reveal to them. Only sufficient information is given so as to characterize the characters as commonplace in the contemporary American society. For instance, George is influenced by Emily to become perfect as the later expresses her options as to how men should be (Wilder, 1938). However, all characters in the play have been given sketchy descriptions and profiles. For example, the play mentions Rebecca Gibbs in only a few scenes so as to express some philosophical ideas while Simon is only outlined as a town drunkard who has troubles (Wilder, 1938). Overall, the reader is not offered in-depth knowledge about any of the characters.

Moreover, it seems that the theme chosen is way too broad to be effectively portrayed in such a short play. The play’s end seems incomplete as the playwright is ineffective at criticizing life. In addition, the play does not incorporate any other considerable themes. The play outlines the transience that characterizes human life by depicting the manner in which individuals rush via life (Lumley, 1967). As much as this may seem true since the characters do not stop to evaluate things pertaining to life or even to acknowledge the significance or importance of ordinary activities after death, this is an illusion that the playwright created through skipping between the time periods. It is worth noting that the Stage Manager passes over numerous years between every act to outline the three key stages pertaining to human life (Lumley, 1967). Wilder, by Splitting the human life into stages, oversimplifies life and does not acknowledge that the things and events that occur in between the acts are just as crucial as the events outlined in the play. The playwright’s words that, every moment in the life of a person must be treasured are rendered meaningless as he chops off the events that he feels are not as crucial.

Overall, “Our Town” does not capture the readers’ heart and mind, especially considering that it leaves them unsatisfied with the ending. The unresolved questions pertaining to the characters and the conflicting themes deprive the play of any coherent message holding it together (Lumley, 1967).

References

Wilder, T, (1938). Our Town: A Play in Three Acts. New York: Coward McCann, Inc

Lumley, F, (1967). New Trends in 20th Century Drama: A Survey since Ibsen and Shaw. New York: Oxford University Press

Analysis Of The Play ‘True West’

Analysis Of The Play ‘True West’

The Play ‘True West’ is deemed a masterpiece of art and draws its inspiration from the American myths about life and the culture. It is more of a narrative elucidates on sibling rivalry. The goal of this essay is to assess the general qualities associated with Austin and Lee and how those qualities shifted as the play progressed. Furthermore, it will discus influence of the character on the play.

Austin appears to be an ordinary, modest and conservative guy in character. He seems to be living a decent life as we are told he has a house, a family and engages in screenwriting as a livelihood source. Moreover, he is shows some level of maturity and responsibility, traits any mother would want in a son. This can be reasoned from the fact that he is left in charge of the house by his mother who takes a trip to Alaska. That she leaves Austin in charge instead of his older brother Lee shows some level of responsibility and trust-worthiness in Austin. He also elicits an attribute of humility since he denies the fact that he is an “artist” when Lee comments about his line of work. He instead claims to be miniature working on small projects.

Lee is a contrast to Austin. He lives a care free life. He is a drunkard as depicted in the first scene of the play.  He is also nagging as he keeps on asking question after question thereby interrupting Austin as he tries to do his work. Lee is also a thief. This was the sole reason he was made away with electronic appliances from their neighborhood. Lee also shows some acts of violence which could be partly attributed to his drunken state, early on in the play, when he roughs up his brother Austin who tries to coax him with money. He seems to have his own beliefs and rules since he refuses to accept money offered by his brother in exchange for forsaking his plans to rob the homes in his mother’s neighborhood. He insists he is not like his father, whom unlike him, could have easily been appeased by the money offer.

As the play progresses, these two brothers, Austin and Lee, take each other’s character. Austin, the straightforward, modest and ambitious screenwriter becomes a drunkard and a thief. He seems to be eager to abandon his normal suburban life and desires to move to the desert with Lee. He also depicts acts of violence as he strangles his brother with a phone cord when Lee tries to leave for the desert without him.  Lee becomes interested in Austin’s line of work and also feels he can make something of himself. He successfully masterminds a coup for a movie deal with Austin’s producer. Here, he portrays his devious side. He attempts to write a play himself as roles are reversed when he is the one in the kitchen table with a type writer and Austin, drunk, pesters him. He however gives up on his quest for a “new west” kind of livelihood as he realizes that this was not just the life for him.

As the two characters develop, we see a comparison and contrast between the “old west” and the “new west.”   Austin represents the new west which is characterized by order and civilization. That is, a suburban way of living. He has a car, a house, a family and a decent job. Lee on the other hand represents the chaotic old west. He is a care free drunkard, a thief, and a frequently violent person living in the desert. It is evident that the two brothers are a product of their environment. As the play develops, these two dissimilar brothers pick up each other’s attributes. Initially, none of them were able to develop anything meaningful but when they picked up each other’s traits and worked together, they did. This could be the writer’s way of depicting the true west. That is, neither the new west nor the old west could accomplish anything meaningful on the movie deal but when the two worlds mingled, they were able to finally begin to write their script. This mingling of the old west with the new west forms the concept of “True West”.

This play eventually succeeds in bringing out traits that define our today lives. It does this perfectly without any sort of mix ups.

Trifles

Trifles

Introduction

Perhaps generalizing the content of the play “Trifles” from the title would judgmental due to the ironical richness of important social issues in the modern world. From the title, one would expect to find the proverbial creation of a mountain from a mere anthill, which is strongly but artistically negated in the plot. One would be tempted to think that it is almost nearing a conclusive end until the reality of the severity of fate of the toppled “stronger sex” gets clear. As inspired by a true story, “Trifles” brings out three main themes where each of the two genders struggles to steal the show, with one unexpectedly making a bigger impact (Ben-Zvi 90). “Trifles” deals with gender perception; a sensitive reading of the drama involves understanding how the men view the women, how the women view the men, and how the women ultimately triumph over the men.

Men are presented as an egoistic species that reserve the back roles for the women right from the beginning of the play. Throughout the development of the play, women seem to be placed in the dark and they consequently withdraw themselves to trivial details that men count as unimportant in the case. “She didn’t pay much attention,” are examples of words men use in the play to refer to women (vcu.edu, 6th conversation by Hale). At one point in the play, women are depicted as a species that concentrates on trifles at an instance when men plainly mock them for linking a quilt to murder case evidence. “Trifles” deals with gender perception; a sensitive reading of the drama involves understanding how the men view the women. Other trivial details that the women fall on in their assistance to unravel the murder are equally rejected by the chauvinistic men in the play. In aromatic turn of events, the very rejections termed trivial become the main pieces of reliable evidence.

“Trifles” deals with gender perception; a sensitive reading of the drama involves understanding how the women view the men. In a contrasting development of the play, the playwright illustrates how women stick to fine detail that affects both their life and for those around them. Interestingly, the murderer sought after in the play happens to be a woman who was fighting against mistreatment by an insensitive husband. The domestic setting in which the murder happens portrays women as victims of a hostile treatment from a chauvinist male domination. The fact that the women in the play seem to read from the same page in all of their ideas shows how the well spirited fight against their mistreatment seems to gain momentum and support from each other.

By stating that “way of knowing leads them not simply to knowledge; it also leads to the decision about how to act on that knowledge” present women as keen on their decision making (Holstein 282). Contrary to any illustration of men throughout the play, the playwright is capable of convincing the audience that the women’s side of battle is more tactical and likely to win (Keller, 15). Consequently, the admissibility of evidence raised by the women is more telling of their ranking in the war. “Trifles” deals with gender perception; on how the women ultimately triumph over the men.

In conclusion, the play “Trifles” is a piece of drama that captures the gender perceptions in a threefold dimension; how men perceive women, how women perceive men and how the later find themselves in a winning position. Giving the last answer in the conversation “She was going to–what is it you call it, ladies!” shows that women are the clear winners (vcu.edu, County Attorney’s last conversation).

 

 

Works Cited

“”Trifles” by Susan Graspen (1916),” n.d. Web. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng384/trifles.htm  (7 April 2011)

Ben-Zvi, Linda Susan Glaspell: Essays on her theatre and fiction. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2002. Print

Holstein Clarkson, Suzy. “Silent Justice in a Different Key: Glaspell’s Trifles.” The Midwest Quarterly 44 (2003): 282-290.

Keller, Matthias Symbolic realism in Susan Glaspell’s “Trifles”. Berlin, Germany: GRIN Verlag Publishers, 2007. Print

Analysis Of The Novel “Fahrenheit”

Analysis Of The Novel “Fahrenheit”

Contents

Technology. 1

Ignorance/ Knowledge. 1

Bechdel’s graphic memoir. 2

Sexual orientation. 2

Conclusions. 3

Fahrenheit is a novel written to present the way reading is illegal in American society. The novel primarily focuses on a historical responsibility of setting books on fire meaning burning the whole house down. The novel is a story on how an interest of people in literature is destroyed by the televisions. Guy Montag who is a character takes his good time to set everything in fire since it’s the job set for him. Other characters include, Mildred who is Montags’ wife, Beatty, and Clarrisse. The themes that emerge in part one of “The Hearth and the Salamander”, include the Censorship, the ignorance or knowledge, the life or death, the technology, animal imagery, paradoxes, and the religion. Some characters play important roles in developing the stated themes.

Technology

A character by the name Faber finds a way he can reach Montag by inventing a radio that is inserted inside the ear. On the other hand, characters are able to speak directly with those people who pay attentions to them through Television screens. People tends to rely on Mechanical Hound, as well as a tool which looks like a snake to save the life of Millie after attempting suicide. Technology dominates culture of the society.

Ignorance/ Knowledge

There is a conflict which exists between knowledge as well as ignorance that the reader presents all through the novel. Montag beliefs that knowledge is not necessary hence he fights against the knowledge in the society he goes to the extent of celebrating ignorance. Montags’ work is to burn the books hence destroying knowledge. Montag becomes friends with Clarisse but, he finds it, so difficult accepting status quo, he believes that life is complete. After discovering so, he starts fighting against ignorance convincing people in order to welcome knowledge in their lives ( Bradbury, 2009).

Bechdel’s graphic memoir

Alison Bechdel is an American cartoonist which entails a graphical memoir, with best comics.  It addresses different themes such as sexual orientation, different roles in gender, and the role of literature in understanding oneself and one’s family. It took almost seven years when writing as well as illustrating the Fun Home. In the fun page, incidents can be told as well as re-told in light of latest information and themes. The fun home structure is described as a labyrinth by Bechdel. It goes over same materials, although starting from outside as well as spiraling in the center of a story. Bechdel re-creates memories by revisiting scenes as well as themes. These create the memories where the force of the attachment generates structure of memoir deriving its structures from the allusions to literature works.

Sexual orientation

Alison Bechdel’s story shows how Bechdel struggles with the identity of sexuality, culminating in realization that she practices lesbianism as well as getting out of her parents. The memoir openly examines development of her sexuality including the transcripts from the childhood diary about masturbation as well as stories about the experiences of her first sexuality.

Conclusions

In addition to common sexuality, Alison share some artistic learning, she says that she was a Spartan to her father’s Athenian, and very modern to her father’s Victorian (Francica, 2010).

Works cited

Bradbury, R..& Hamilton, T.. (2009). Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451: the authorized adaptation. New York: Hill and Wang. Francica, C. A. (2010). Performing unreachable bodies the politics of encounter in Alison Bechdel’s Fun home. London: University of Texas.

Analysis of the New Zealand Currency

Analysis of the New Zealand Currency

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Analysis of the New Zealand Currency

The extensive appreciation of the New Zealand dollar since late 2000 is not historically exceptional. In the 1960s, the New Zealand dollar was fixed for a few years at around US $1.40, however from the late 1960s until the mid-1980s it essentially devalued in quality because of New Zealand’s expansion surpassing that among our exchanging accomplices. Since the New Zealand dollar was drifted in 1985, it has had a tendency to cycle between an extent of Us40 pennies and Us70 pennies. There is proof the New Zealand dollar is presently substantially exaggerated, yet anticipating its future way is naturally troublesome because of determining challenges. Numerous economic observers all things considered accept the New Zealand dollar is either at, or close to, the highest point of its most recent exchange rate cycle. The purpose of this paper is to perform an analysis of the New Zealand currency.

Throughout the recent years New Zealand has utilized about every manifestation of exchange rate regime conceivable, keeping in mind the macroeconomic execution over that period has changed uniquely, the genuine conversion measure has shown shockingly little distinction. New Zealand’s genuine exchange rate has vacillated in vast cycles in the course of the most recent years; however the decision of conversion standard administration, or all the more effectively, the vicinity of development focusing on has little effect to the conduct of the actual exchange rate. Since the end of Bretton Woods there have been numerous conversion standard administrations that the money related powers have used to either straightforwardly impact the ostensible exchange rate, keep up steadiness in either the correct or ostensible exchange rate, or let the exchange rate coast openly keeping in mind the end goal to seek after different goals. There are no trade controls on outside trade transactions embraced in New Zealand, either by New Zealand inhabitants or non-occupants. Since the buoy, the Reserve Bank has held outside stores principally with the end goal of intercession in an emergency circumstance, when there may be no ‘market creators’ in the New Zealand dollar.

After the collapse of Bretton Woods, the average real exchange rate fell further around the time of the United Kingdom’s promotion to the European Economic Community (now European Union) and the first oil value emergency. A generally steady period for the average real exchange rate followed as conversion scale strategy focused on its dependability, in addition to everything else, through to the Balance of Payments emergency and ensuing buoy of the New Zealand dollar. After the beginning stun the average real exchange rate then changed around the same level as before the buoy through the accomplishment of value steadiness and up to this point. In the last five to ten years the average real exchange rate level is more likened to that before the breakdown of Bretton Woods. Over the same period month to month unpredictability has been astoundingly comparable between administrations, aside from the time of the slithering peg, where genuine conversion scale solidness was unequivocally focused on. While developments in the ostensible conversion scale represent a great part of the average real exchange rate development as of late, this has not generally been the situation.

The US Dollar cross rate ought to be deciphered as one New Zealand dollar purchasing x US dollars. The Trade-weighted record is the ostensible NZ dollar conversion standard weighted 50/50 by New Zealand’s exchange with its significant exchanging accomplices and the ostensible GDPs (in US dollars) of those nations. The diagram demonstrates month to month midpoints. In October 2000 the New Zealand dollar arrived at record lows, dropping underneath 40 pennies for every New Zealand dollar. On the other hand, after 2002, the coin reinforced impressively, reflecting a solid residential economy, climbing fare merchandise costs and related builds in investment rates. The Trade-weighted record carried on also to the US dollar traverse the vast majority of the decade. In 2008, continuing financial market qualms and  a weakening global economic saw numerous speculators move into saw ‘place of refuge’ coinage, for example, the United States dollar. Subsequently, the New Zealand dollar fell forcefully against the United States dollar and different monetary standards in the Trade-weighted record (the Japanese Yen and Euro specifically), yet these falls ended up being truly short-lived. Partially that reflected the path in which New Zealand was hit hard in the retreat than large portions of the nations whose monetary forms make up the Trade-weighted record.

The current account deficit remained at 4.3% of GP for the twelve months to September 2011. A key gimmick of New Zealand’s present record setback is the expansive deficit on speculation salary, reflecting New Zealand’s net outside obligation position. The speculation pay deficit build between June 2004 and June 2008, as venture salary outpourings climbed because of an expand in universal liabilities, bringing about an augmenting current record setback over the period. After late 2008, the speculation salary deficiency limited particularly, driven by lower benefits gathering to abroad claim firms working in New Zealand as a consequence of frail provincial exchanging conditions, and lower interest installments streaming to holders of New Zealand obligation as the aftereffect of lower investment rates both locally and globally. In the year to September 2011 the setback began to extend once more.

The goods and services offset has fluctuated because of the impacts of dry season; ware value vacillations (counting oil price changes, some substantial one-off imports and coin developments) and also New Zealand’s interest for imports and universal interest for New Zealand sends out. The effect of the stronger currency on fare income and reliable household development on import request, together with an expand in the financing wage deficit because of solid benefits of remote claimed firms, led to the current record deficiency arriving at 8.7% of ostensible GP in the year completed 30 September 2008. All the more as of late, nonetheless, the blending of narrowing products and administrations setbacks and, specifically, a contracting financing salary setback, led to the current record shortfall tumbling to 3.0% of GP in the year finished September 2009. The deficit expand to 4.3% of GP in the year end September 2011 as an ascent in the salary shortfall, given by a build in benefits to remote financial specialists in New Zealand firms, more than counterbalance a build in the products surplus, and additionally a comeback to an administrations setback.

There have been significant changes in New Zealand. In July 2007, The Reserve Bank published progressions to its financing and administration of New Zealand’s outside money holds in July 2007. Under the new game plans, the Bank holds some share of its remote saves on an un-supported premise, known as an “open FX” position. This implies that some piece of the remote stores portfolio will be financed in New Zealand dollars as opposed to in outside monetary standards. The Bank’s rules for working in the remote trade business have likewise been altered. Clear intercession proposed to control the conversion rate straightforwardly can in any case happen. Moreover, the Bank can all the more bit by bit amass or decrease its remote trade position when the conversion rate is at amazing levels and unjustified by medium-term investment basics. The Bank’s more inactive FX transactions won’t primarily be required to specifically affect the conversion standard. The Bank’s net outside trade area is unveiled freely with a slack.

References

Baliño, T., & Critin, D. (2004). New Zealand: Financial System Stability Assessment, including   Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: monetary and financial policy transparency, banking supervision, and securities regulation (1st   ed.). Washington, DC.

DiPiazza, F. (2006). New Zealand in pictures. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books.

Publishing, O. (2013). Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax        Purposes. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Monthly Averages USA Mid-rate US$ per NZ$ Japan Mid-rate Yen per NZ$ Trade Weighted Exchange Rate Index[1]
Jun-07 0.7559 92.66 73.6
Jun-08 0.7607 81.32 68.1
Jun-09 0.6374 61.63 60.3
Jun-10 0.6928 62.96 67.1
Jun-11 0.815 65.63 70.3
Jul-11 0.8455 67.17 72.7
Aug-11 0.8384 64.67 72.1
Sep-11 0.8143 62.59 71.2
Oct-11 0.7879 60.39 69.3
Nov-11 0.7728 59.95 68.2
Dec-11 0.7697 59.92 68.6

Analysis of The movie ‘The Inside Job’

Analysis of The movie ‘The Inside Job’

The movie ‘The Inside Job’ is a documentary that focuses on the financial crisis experienced in the late 2000s. The director of this movie Charles H. Ferguson described the movie as being about the corruption by the United States financial sector and the consequences resulting from this fraud (Zoller et al, 56). The movie starts with the view of Iceland’s deregulation that took place in 2000. Most of the banks in this country were privatized. Consequently, when AIG and Lehman Brothers reported bankruptcy on the month of September 2008, the world went into recession. In the first part of this movie named ‘How We Got Here’ it focuses on how the financial sector was initially regulated in the period between 1940 and 1980. However, deregulation followed this and continued for a considerable period of time. What followed were financial crisis, an example given in the movie is when savings and loans crisis at around the late 1980 did cost the taxpayer around $124 billon. By the year 2000 the five banks, three insurance companies and around three rating companies had dominated the entire financial system (Pizzo et al, 34).

The second part of this movie concentrates on the period between 2001 and 2007. This period saw the housing sector grow rapidly as investment banks borrowed money whose ratio with the bank’s assets reached record levels (Pizzo et al, 45). The documentary shows that speculators bought credit default swap against CDOs that they did not have or even own. The third part of this movie the documentary shows the effects of low valued CDOs that were sold by Goldman Sachs. After the CDOs collapsed, investment banks left with loans, CDOs and real estate in billions of dollars that they couldn’t settle. What followed is that Bear Stearns reported bankruptcy, Lehman Brothers ran out of cash and AIG was taken over by the government (Zoller et al, 72). The entire financial industry became paralyzed. The accountability section of the movie it showed how the top managers of this falling corporations left with their benefits untouched. The last part tries to define the situation after 2008 where thousands of the US workers were relieved off their jobs. It also shows why the Obama policies on this issue won’t work.

The Big Guy: Tom Delays’ stolen congress is a documentary that trails the investigations of district attorney Ronnie Earle in the Delays case. The district attorney, who happens to be a maverick, gave a rare access of the case to the film crew of the movie. In this documentary its showed how Delay due to his contempt of the government became a favorite of the cooperate world (Jefferson et al, 31). Over one decade, corporations funded DeLay enhancing his rise to power. The documentary is a story of how Tom DeLay sat and visualized how he was going to redesign the American government completely. During this period Delay wined dined and bank rolled an extravagant life that was complete with jets and the most expensive restaurants. This documentary pursues the investigations that followed this. The story shows how DeLay participated in what may arguably be the most transparent power grabbing in the history of America.

According to this documentary DeLay’s mission was almost complete. However, the district attorney was on his heels and furthermore, DeLay made a mistake. He willingly channeled the cooperate money to the candidates of 2003 Texas elections (Mayhew et al, 57). The Grand jury in Texas brought indictments against several corporations, a lobby firm and Tom DeLay himself. He ended up giving up his leadership. However, though he gave up his post, his Texas takeover still affects most American daily (Jefferson et al, 24). The movie acts as good lesson to the corporate and ambitious politicians on the effects of violating voting rights. Corporate money has dominated elections in the United States of America but this documentary shows the repercussion of such actions (Mayhew et al, 78).  Credit has to be given to the district Attorney for the opportunity accorded by him and his office in this movie.

Works Cited

Seitz, Joseph Zoller. The inside job. Rev.of the inside job, dir. Charles Ferguson. New York Times 30 May 2009 late ed. E1. Print.

Flicker, Maulo, Stephen Pizzo. The inside job: The looting of America’s savings and loans Rev. of The inside job, dir. Charles Ferguson. Readers Digest 21 September 2010. E1. Print.

Seal, Mark Jefferson. The Big Guy, Tom Delay’s stolen congress” Rev. The Big Guy, Tom Delay’s stolen congress, dir. Charles Ferguson. New York Times 23 March 2009 late ed.: E1. Print.

Morris, Robert Mayhew. The Big Guy, Tom Delay’s stolen congress. dir. Mark Birnbaun. New york daily 30 May 2008. E1. Print.

Analysis of the Market for Beats

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Analysis of the Market for Beats

The focus of this analysis report is an audio device company. Beats by Dr. Dre is a name that is famous worldwide for audio devices. The market that will be analyzed for this product is the United Kingdom; a country found in Europe. Beats by Dr. Dre is a company that is affiliated to Apple Inc. They deal with audio devices ranging from earphones, headphones to speakers and many other audio products. There are several factors that make this specific brand special worldwide. The first is the celebrity endorsement that it the company has invested heavily in. The product has been featured in numerous music videos and ad campaigns that have created a very high profile image for the brand and its products. The numerous endorsements by celebrities have made it very glamorous to be associated with the brand. That explains the large number of young people wearing the headphones and earphones around their necks. School going children and young working adults all possess or wish to own a pair of Beats headphones or earphones. Other than the popularity that the product has gained from celebrity endorsements, the brand produces high quality products. The sound quality of the audio devices is much higher when compared to the competitor products. The bass produced by the earphones is appreciated by music lovers of specific genres such as hip hop, dance and electronic music. The market in the United Kingdom is very good for products produced by Beats. In fact, the BPI released statistics that suggest that companies dealing with technology would enjoy transacting business in the United Kingdom. The UK has 64.1 million resident citizens. Of this population, 12% are young adults who are between the age of 16 and 24. This accounts for 7.1 million young adults which is the target market for beats. In the past five years, according to BPI, there was an increase in sales made by the technology sector accruing to $11 billion. The sales in smart phones and tablets accounted for the majority of growth in the technology sector.  Music was among the key driving factors for this massive growth in sales. This is because the United Kingdom was found to purchase more music related products than other first world countries by approximately 25%. All these facts indicate that Beats doing business in the United Kingdom would be a profitable endeavor.

Beats is a household name in literally every country on the globe. However, this does not mean that it is the only producer of quality audio devices; especially in the United Kingdom. There are many other brands such in the United Kingdom. Such brands are like: Denon, Sony, Philips, Grado and Sennheiser. The market conditions in the United Kingdom fit the description of imperfect competition. First, the number of dealers is not large. The number of producers is not that many in the market. Secondly, the products in the market are heterogeneous. Beats and its competitors do not produce headphones and earphones either. They produce many other products. For example, Beats has a wide range of speakers, from small sized speakers commonly called Nicki pills to heavy duty speakers that can be used in gatherings of large crowds. Prices can be charged higher simply because of the preference the product bears. This is a typical case with Beats. The brand is associated with high profile customers e.g. DJs, musicians and many other people mostly in the entertainment industry. As said earlier, the customers of Beats pay a higher price for the products. The customers are willing to buy Beats headphones at a higher price rather than buy headphones of equal quality. The rivals in the market interact in a healthy manner. There is always a constant rivalry that exists between the producers of audio devices. The competitors always seek to release more products that will be of better quality or have better features than the last product. One tactic often used is to offer similar products at a cheaper price. This method ensures that those customers unable to buy their products simply because they cannot afford the products offered by the competitors. Competitors in this market seek ways to preserve the fat profit margin that they have. For example, Beats offers high prices for the products which ensure that the company is able to make higher profits and still keep its sales up. There are certain barriers that prevent entry of competitors or make it hard for the new companies. Competition to develop new technologies encourages innovation in this sector. This innovation also helps companies cut a niche from its competitors. The government prevents monopoly of the sector giving space for new companies in the market (Libby Rittenberg 346).

As mentioned in the beginning, the Beats brand is one that is driven by popularity in the market as a result of a creative marketing. This campaign has worked well in the other countries. This is a strategy that can do very well for Beats in the United Kingdom. If the Beats products are associated with high profile celebrities in the United Kingdom, then this will ensure that it is attractive to other people in the country. For example, if highly successful people in the United Kingdom (especially in the entertainment industry) are associated with the product, then the product will sell successfully in the country. Another factor that can boost sales of Beats products in the United Kingdom is the wide portfolio of products that it currently has. Giving people a choice of products to purchase gives the company presence. The increase of sales in phones and tablets in the United Kingdom will make provide Beats with a gap to fill. It is true to say that there other brands of audio devices in the United Kingdom. However, a brand such as Beats will fill a gap for high end audio devices needed by music lovers everywhere in the UK. Each day, new music enters the market. This music is often accessed through smart phones and tablets. An increase in the number of devices being purchased translates to an increase in demand for audio devices. Beats should take advantage of its global presence and get into the United Kingdom market. It will surely be a successful venture. The size of income that will be earned by the company will be high. The price of elasticity of demand will also be healthy. Beats products are luxury products. They are not necessarily essential for anyone to live life. People can do without Beats products. If a consumer of music wants to purchase an audio device, then they can purchase a device of similar quality but of a cheaper price. This means that the suppliers need to maintain a constant or higher rate of demand. If Beats need to increase the demand, then the celebrity endorsements need to be increased. If not, they need to maintain. The design can also be improved. This ensures that the number of products is increased and there is a wider variety of audio devices available to the market. If new products are introduced to the market, this also helps Beats get new customers who will find the new products more interesting than the older products.

The market of audio devices can only grow. This is because new music is always being introduced. With each new genre, a specific need arises. For example, an audio device company can enhance the bass or speed etc. Each day new innovations are made to address these needs. This means that the sector can grow and develop. This fact provides a space for new companies to enter the market. If the existing companies can invent new products to address the need, then they create a niche that they can occupy and compete with the big multinational companies. Beats can also fill this gap if it stays “on its toes” and commits to staying ahead of the competition. They can even grab the market share of new products or more efficient devices. A person can start a new business in this market. There are two factors that make this possible. First, if the company is innovative, the new product can ensure that new customers are attracted and older customers are retained. Owning a patent on the new product further ensures that the success of the company because the competing companies cannot produce similar products.  Secondly, the new companies or businesses are protected by the government. The various laws that protect companies from monopolies ensure that the interests of new businesses are protected and they are allowed to flourish. These laws enacted by the government also protect the interests of the already existing companies as well. However, if a new business is interested in venturing in the market to offer already existing products, then it would be hard for that company to grow in the market unless they have experience in similar markets in the world.

Works Cited

Libby Rittenberg, Timothy Tregarthen. Principles of Microeconomics. New York, NY: FlatWorld Knowledge, 2012.

Analysis Of The Leadership Styles Of Dave Thomas

Analysis Of The Leadership Styles Of Dave Thomas

Table of Contents

Contents. 2

Introduction. 3

Analysis of the Leadership Styles of a Business Leader, Dave Thomas. 3

How Dave Thomas Demonstrates the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. 4

The Laissez-Faire Style. 4

Autocratic Style. 5

Participative Leadership. 5

Transactional Leadership Style. 5

Transformational Leadership Style. 6

Background and Context for the Environment and Culture of the Organization or Society in Which Dave Thomas Provides Leadership. 6

Conclusion. 6

References. 6

Analysis of the Leadership Styles of Dave Thomas

Introduction

According to Miller and Cope (2011), various types of leadership styles exist in the working place, and disadvantages and advantages exist in each leadership style. The goals and culture of a specific organization evaluate the best leadership style that fits the organization well. Some organizations provide various leadership styles within the firm based on the necessary tasks for departmental needs.

People with the best leadership or management styles achieve the best outcomes from other colleagues. Leadership and management styles are not about bad or good or right and wrong. Instead, it depends on people, task, and situation that are being managed.

To sustain competitive advantage and maintain the success within a changing business organization, it is necessary for an organization to determine, foster, and prepare for the coming generation to improve the performance of its workers through provision of trainings, thus preparing them for excellence (Brown, 2003).

Why Dave Thomas Was Selected

Dave Thomas was chosen since he is a remarkable and business leader who had the ability of inspiring his employees to meet the strategic goals of the company by employing the major factors of leadership and motivational styles to daily operations. Dave Thomas had to make decisions that benefit him and the employees. He understands the ethics and values of his employees and preaches them in leadership style as well as actions.

Dave Thomas’s definition of leadership

Dave Thomas defined that leadership is the ability of managing an organization or company to meets its expected goals. It involves directing supervising and controlling the performance of the employees for the success of the company.

Background and Context for the Environment and Culture of the Organization or Society in Which Dave Thomas Provides Leadership

Dave Thomas was a businessman and a philanthropist and was the initiator of Wendy’s fast food restaurant. As a remarkable and business leader, he puts first the trust on his employees and inspires them to make decisions. He delegates to the employees the power of making such decisions and listens to their advice. This promotes a good two-way communication since it involves a democratic discussion groups which provide important ideas and suggestions. This democratic system takes place when the decisions are executed based on how majority view the employees. This type of leadership is important mostly in case there is need for complex decisions.

To motivate the employees, Dave Thomas provided effective and good communication skills including active listening through paraphrasing what the employees said and facilitating group discussion to prevent them from straying off the course. Besides, he motivated his workers by providing an environment of integrity and respect, in such a way building a productive team. This demonstrated that Dave Thomas is the role model for his followers that encourage them and make them feel interested in his position. This also challenged them to take higher ownership of their tasks.

Dave Thomas was able to determine the weaknesses and strengths of his employees and he aligned them with the work that promoted their performance. Besides, he motivated his followers by articulating a vision that is appealing and which inspired the workforce. In enabling the organization to focus on consumer’s satisfaction, he implemented some programs that created awareness of the importance of presenting improved customer service.

How Dave Thomas Demonstrates the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership

The Laissez-Faire Style

Using the laissez-faire style, Dave Thomas inspired the shared vision of the organization through the employment of qualified employees who bring success to the institution. To achieve this the leader showed his leadership style of laissez-faire style through his workers who are Trained and highly experienced and require little or no supervision. This led to the organization achieving the expected goals.

He disliked the production of workers that need supervision as he considered that workers that require supervision provide no leadership efforts, leading to poor production and lack of increasing and control costs.

Autocratic Style

To challenge the process, Dave Thomas employs autocratic leadership style where he uses the style to make decisions on the problems that arise within the organization. According to Kippenberger (2002), autocratic style enables the managers or the top management to make decisions with no inputs from other people. What concerns Dave Thomas, he shows total authority, enforces the will in the workforce, and this is considered important to employees who need more supervision from their leaders.

Participative Leadership

Brown (2003) stated that participative leadership style also called the democratic style values the input of group members, as well as peers. Based on this type of leadership style, the responsibility of making a decision lies on the actions of the leader. To enable others to participate, Dave Thomas boosted the morale of the employees and encourages them to act in the expected manner since workers participate in the process of decision making. He persuaded his employees to feel that their opinions matter most. When an organization has to make changes, this type of leadership assists the employees to accept the changes easily since they make contributions during decision-making.

Transactional Leadership Style

Transactional leadership was used by Dave Thomas to encourage the heart of the workers to act well as expected. Miller and Cope (2011) suggested that the managers or top managements who use the transactional leadership style obtain specific tasks to perform and offer rewards or punishments to the group members based on the performance outcomes. As a business leader, Dave Thomas set the goals, and the workers accept to follow the direction and the leadership of the leader for the set goals to be achieved.

Based on this type of leadership style, Dave Thomas had the power to review the result and provide enough training to the workers when there is a failure of the team members to achieve the set goals. Employees in this type of leadership are provided with rewards including bonuses when the set goals are accomplished. Use of rewards by the leader persuades the employees to act well in the organization; therefore promoting the performance of his employees and the organization as a whole.

Transformational Leadership Style

According to Mary (2005), transformational leadership style relies on the high levels of communication from the management to achieve the set goals. Dave Thomas inspired his employees and promoted both efficiency and productivity through high visibility and communication. He encouraged the involvement of management to attain organization’s set goals. The top management focuses on the improved picture in the organization and assigns smaller jobs to the group members to achieve the expected goals.

Background and Context for the Environment and Culture of the Organization or Society in Which Dave Thomas Provides Leadership

Successful leaders assess a situation and consider alternatives, and make actions that can lessen risks and capitalize on opportunities. By employing democratic leadership style, Dave Thomas makes decisions, but consults the employees before taking any action (Brown, 2003). This contributes to improved rates of employee morale and satisfaction. Besides, he focuses more on inspiring the followers but decisions are made by the employees themselves. From these perceptions, Dave Thomas is not looking for input from the team, but is looking to acquire employees who can support him.

Conclusion

Dave Thomas is considered to be successful leader. This is because he showed active participation with his employees, and this assured improved satisfaction and productivity. Moreover, the involvement of employees during decision making enables them to develop a greater sense of self-esteem.

References

Brown, A.B. (2003). Democratic leadership, G. Allen and Unwin Ltd, London

Kippenberger, T. (2002). Leadership styles, Capstone Publication, Oxford, U.K

Mary, N. (2005). Transformational Leadership in Human Service Organizations, Administration

 in Social Work, 29, 105-118

Miller, A.A. & Cope, J.G. (2011). Examining the effects of leadership style on the follower’s

 self-concept, Greenville, East Carolina University, NC

Analysis of the Labor Standards in China

Analysis of the Labor Standards in China

Name:

University:

Executive summary

This study examines the Global Labor Rights, changes to and relations between labor policies and protection of workers in context of China’s market transition. With a focus on statutory laws, the labor act of 1994 and the trade union act of 1992, the paper clarifies how different acts are responsible to ensure non-exploitation of Chinese workers. Pointing out as far as 1980, the paper clarifies as to why some administration policies existed in China without mutual representation as part of the law. Besides, it discloses why the state is relaxed in controlling labor mobility and job allocation most especially for international companies. Ultimately, the paper points out on the paradigmatic shifts of China ’s labor policy that has been mainly enhanced by several challenges including the bigger number of unemployed Chinese population and laxity by independent trade union to serve its function of protecting the right of workers.

Introduction

The production of goods is linked to every employer because of where they are utilized or how they are financed. While analyzing labor standard in the republic of China, companies that provide safe working conditions and safety labor laws have been identified (Brown, 2010).  Besides, conclusions have been drawn that market failures have complicated issues to countries such as China leading to underdevelopment of labor standards as well as the growth of wages (Ngok, 2008).  Moreover, it stimulates interaction and the development process hence creating avenues for more outgrowths in the industrial sector. Regardless of laxity in labor laws, China’s entrance to world trade organizations has brought different reactions with investment fever being elicited by attracting different foreign investments. Of late, China has received a recommendable record as a country that has gone far much beyond others in terms of investment destination. With foreign trade investment hitting a track record of $ 600 billion, a more upward trend is expected in the near future, but issues of labor has remained to be of less consideration (Ngok, 2008).

Current Status of Labor Laws in China

According to Brown (2010), China being a socialist republic, the country is controlled through planned economy and socialist’s style of labor management system. However, the country is making several amendments on to its labor laws so as to make it compatible with the rest of the other countries. From the usual norm, most countries across the world including the United States have opted to invest their production into China because of the cheap cost labor and less strict policies governing the workforce so as to maximize their return on investments (Brown, 2010). The situation has been enhanced due to the fact that China has abundant supply of labor force with majority of the population willing to do extra work with very minimal payments. Currently, several things have changed with the Chinese government adopting different types of labor laws some of which includes statutory laws, administrative laws and international laws among others (Brown, 2010).

Statutory Law

Chen & Hamori (2014), argues that Statutory laws are special types of laws enacted by the national people’s congress of China (NPC) and streamlined under various ministries including the labor ministry to protect the rights of industrial workers. A number of statutory laws regarding the protection of workers’ rights have since been implemented such as;

The Labor Act Of 1994

The labor act of 1994 is believed to be the first labor law act to have been enacted by the Chinese government. Such a law offers protection to Chinese citizens including citizens of other states who are employed under companies registered in China (Chen & Hamori, 2014). As stipulated by the constitution of China, the labor act of 1994 clarifies about the minimum wage, employment of the minors, the duration of working and ways of doing inspection among other protection of workers. However, with the looming shortage of blue collar jobs in China, the act has not been fully explored.  In addition, poor management of China’s factories abundant workforce has lifted a big factor subjecting workers to low wages with no alternative solutions. Regardless of the existence of the laws in China, most workers are completely unaware about such existence while those who aware are not willing to push for further pavements due to fear of missing similar opportunities in future (Chen & Hamori, 2014).

The Trade Union Act Of 1992

The act form part of the trade union system that gives the trade union powers to allow for collective bargaining of Chinese workers and settlement of disputes that concerns enterprises and Industrial management. The trade union act of 1992 has led to the establishment of the largest labor networks in China with global links where all employees are expected to make contributions for union management and settling for workers disputes. According to the above act, every company is mandated to have a single union for employees and all such unions must be registered by the federal trade union of China (FTUC).

China’s Administrative Laws

As part of employing control to labor force of all citizens working in the republic of China, the state has enacted administrative laws to fill up the deficit left by statutory laws towards the realization of better administration of workers (Bao., Lin & Zhao, 2012). In the past, some administration policies existed in China without mutual representation of the law. However, the concept is slowly changing with most policies especially the ones regarding labor function being amended. In essence, the labor administrative act in China states that no employee should be forcefully made to work for more than 40 hours per week. While most of the China’s statutory laws are of more benefits to international investors, they are similarly of greater advantage to female employees (Bao., Lin & Zhao, 2012).

International Labor Laws Conventions

Besides its increased investments to different countries across the world, a lot of pressure has been subjected to China leading to its joining of the world trade organization (WTO) (Potter, 2014). This has been mainly done to facilitate compliancy to the international labor standards. Through collective bargaining and freedom from forced labor, China through the international labor conventions works towards the development of quality opportunities, gender equity, safety and better working environment. Ultimately, the international labor convention has enable workers within the republic of China to have a joint immunity thus protect the right of workers (Potter, 2014).

Employee’s protection and standards of working in China

There is pronounced information that investors in China incur very minimal cost of production compared to unit cost of production in already developed countries such as the United States (Moser, 2010). Majority of Chinese employees have no life assurance policies nor do they receive some of the most vital healthcare benefits as it is done to workers in western countries.  However, China being cultural intensive has developed appropriate mechanism allowing workers to respond to national holidays and others being paid almost double the amount when they respond to duties either on weekends or when they are suppose to be off duty (Moser, 2010). Besides, varied social context of labor legislative laws in China has motivated concerns for the government to ensure managerial efficiency of workers and to increase oversight regulatory authority. Such policies have been employed in development zones in manufacturing industries so as to foster institutional capacity and to address labor problems of non state sector.

As part of concerns to ensure protection for female employees, women have been accorded equal rights to men counterparts thus enhancing their participation rate to almost 50%, which is substantially higher as compared to most of developing countries across the world. As a matter of fact, Chinese women have been allowed to own a bigger percentage of their husband’s earnings compared to already developed countries in both Europe and the United States that amounts to less than 68% of the men’s total earnings (Moser, 2010). Never the less, not all China ’s labor policies are perceived better than other nations, but some of them are more similar to what is executed in other states. For instance, the international labor laws regarding employment of minors has been universally set at the age of 14 for the third world countries and 15 years for the developed countries. However, China, the United States and most countries in the European region have set the age limit at 16. Ultimately, both countries employ political authority to spearhead the enactment of labor laws with projections to control provision of labor while ensuring protection of workers through single unions (Moser, 2010).

Challenges associated with the implementation of labor laws in China

As good as they seem in the constitutional handbook, a lot of complains have been raised globally that China’s labor laws are not getting followed to the later. First, the government is quite reluctant to impose such laws for non state investors due to fear of economic imbalance that may be created by international countries (Men & Balducci, 2010). Secondly, the independent trade union that has been mandated by the government never serves its role purposely to protect the right of workers. Moreover, a lot of transformation is currently taking place within the Chinese government which has led to greater level of inability to enforce the labor laws. Therefore, it is so obvious that China has continued to have a severe persistence of labor injustice that is perceived to have been enhanced by the bigger number of unemployed population. On the other hand various interstates cultural differences have also made it impossible implement some of the laws (Men & Balducci, 2010).

Conclusion

The emotional people congress which is the legal body in China mandated to enact laws governing the citizens has done its very best while some of these laws are not getting implemented fully. This paper has pointed out several reasons for China received a recommendable record as a country that has gone far much beyond countries such as the United States in terms of investment and workers protection. Citing statutory laws, the labor act of 1994 and the trade union act of 1992 among others, the paper has clarified why China enhances collective bargaining and freedom from forced labor through international labor conventions. Ultimately, Chinese government also works towards the development of quality opportunities, gender equity, safety and working environment for workers across the entire nation.

References:

Bao, S., Lin, S., & Zhao, C. (2012). The Chinese economy after WTO accession. Aldershot,     England: Ashgate.

Brown, R. C. (2010). Understanding labor and employment law in China. Cambridge:             Cambridge University Press.

Chen, G., & Hamori, S. (2014). Rural Labor Migration, Discrimination, and the New Dual     Labor Market in China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Imprint: Springer.

Men, J., & Balducci, G. (2010). Prospects and challenges for EU-China relations in the 21st         century: The partnership and cooperation agreement. Bruxelles: P.I.E. Peter Lang.

Moser, M. J. (2010). Doing business in China. Huntington, NY: Juris.

Ngok, K. (2008). The changes of Chinese labor policy and labor legislation in the context of     market transition. International Labor and Working Class History, 73(01), 45-64.

Potter, P. B. (2014). Assessing treaty performance in China: Trade and human rights.