Amnestic Disorder: Mike

Amnestic Disorder:  Mike

Mike developed symptoms of Amnestic disorder after sustaining a head injury in an accident.  He used to work on cars and built engines. He says he has what is called “over learned memory”. This is where he has done something several times before, such as built and engine, before his head injury. He has difficulty remembering new information, although if he links it to old information, many times he will recall it was that he couldn’t remember. He gives an example: Mike say he had to change banks because he couldn’t remember where his bank was. So finally he came up with a creative solution. He began banking at a bank near a previous employer and when he sees his employment, says “it clicks”, and then he remembers.

Mike can no longer obtain employment due his memory loss. He did attempt to go back to work following the accident. Mike states that his employer did not trust him building the engines anymore as a result of a fear that he may not do it correctly, so the employer assigned him janitorial duties, such as mopping, and taking out the trash. Following the accident, Mike lost his employment, lost his home as a result of loss of economic means, and went through a divorce. At which point he became depressed and suicidal. Mike states that if he hadn’t had this condition he would have been able to keep his home, and deal with the loss of his wife.

Multiaxial Assessment: Mike

Axis I:             294.0 Amnestic Disorder De to Head Trauma, Chronic

Axis II:            V.71.09 Diagnosis Deferred

Axis III:          294.0 Amnestic Disorder Due to Head Trauma

Axis IV:          Occupational problems, economic/financial problems, divorced.

Axis V:         GAF 50

Ammaxe Online Agency Memo

Ammaxe Online Agency Memo


Ammaxe Online Agency Memo

To:  Client

From:  Name


This memo is written to you to remind you on the best way you can leverage social media to brand your organization. You first need to know that the web has become an import tool in marketing. The powerful ability of the internet has made it easier and effective to brand organizations with leveraging social media in the best way possible. The internet has drastically changed as technology gets better and more advanced every new day. Consultants make use of the web tools such as social media to offer consulting services to clients such as advice how to leverage social media to brand their organizations.

Social Media in Marketing

The use of social media makes customers trust companies given that the social media makes organizations to be transparent. The expectations of any client to an organization to find transparency, openness, and honesty in the organization’s activities, which is enhanced through the use of social media. To leverage your organization, the best way you can do it is to turn to social media such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, or any other idea exchanging online media (Broitman, 2008). You need to make a selection from the broad list of social media through strategizing mechanism.

Employing an integrated brand management strategy is today a necessary tool in marketing. Incorporating integrated brand management would enable your organization maintain a great competitive edge in the market for its products or services. Investing in social media would hardly fail the organization realize its importance. From the perspective of the employees in your organization, leveraging social network would improve their services or activity (Manda, 2010). Social media makes your organization ensure that its processes as well as policies all points of the employees and their lifecycle are aligned closely so that employer value proposition can be started.

Social Media in Recruiting

You can as well leverage social media in order to reach out your potential employees. Social media is not only used to improve on an organization’s marketing but can be used to improve on the human resource of the organization. Recruiting new employees is today hardly an easy task. If organizations are not careful with whom they employ to tackle various tasks in organizations, selecting unqualified applicants is likely to happen. The result of the poor selection of employees is a decreased organization yield, mismanagement, and increased cases of higher costs of running the organization. The use of a better and an integrated approach in recruiting employees would be a wise strategy for the human resource department of your organization (Odden, 2013). An integrated approach would be an approach that uses traditional methods and social media to source talents.

The traditional method that you can incorporate would require the use of recruit agencies as well as job boards. On the other hand, using the social media talent sourcing would involve the use of networking networks with the likes of Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and LinkedIn. An integrated approach would provide your organization with various opportunities in targeting many potential employees who are highly talented and with full passion to work towards the organizational goals and objectives. The employees recruited are likely to show a wide range of talents at a lesser cost but high precision in performing their tasks (Harikumar, 2012). To make the organization place value on proposition is improved through social media, which is a great way, in which organizations are noticed.

The same can initiate a rich dialogue with talented segments that are of target. Social media would also encourage building of key levers of employer brand. Employer brand is the mental imagery as well as the physical or even reaching a brand by a customer. It is the obligation of the organization to ensure that this aspect comes true. Social media improves the image of an organization in a way that job seekers would place value in choosing to work in such an organization. The style, content, and tone of the social media that you have placed in your organization would determine how the brand attributes could be brought to life in an authentic as well as a compelling manner (Harikumar, 2012). This can be achieved along with any reach provided by the kind of social media you make use of.

You can hardly determine which social media network is the most effective in leveraging your organization but your strategy can be based on the feature incorporated in each one of the many social media networks as well as their popularities. It is certain that popularity of the various social media networks varies greatly with Facebook taking the lead in the market, seconded by Twitter. This aspect implies that whichever medium you choose, looking at the target population is of great importance. In this case, you may base you strategy on what you need from the target population as well as how best you can incorporate linking your organization’s website to the social media network of choice. In doing this, you can make use of career pages that are region-specific, career fit widgets, as well as job searches. All these create a link between various subjects of choice and the organization (Harikumar, 2012). You can as well strengthen the website and the social media talent sourcing by initiating a program in which the current employees post their testimonials as well as their experiences through an online conversation via the social network that you have chosen.

Social Media in Engaging Existing Workers

On a similar aspect of leveraging social media to shape your organization, you can extent the same to engage the current employees. With the use of social media, you can create provision of collaboration potential at your organization’s workplace. This aspect would encourage an aid to employee communication as well as sharing of different ideas through an online communication via social networks. In communication that is enriched with social media networking, realigning employment experience can be reached with much ease (Harikumar, 2012). The digital experience is a great experience anyone in the current generation would wish to go through. Most workers in the current world are accustomed to using social media in most of their activities requiring idea trading, a factor that can yield many benefits not only to the employees but also to the organization as a whole. Workers would communicate about the organizations culture over the social media networks (Harikumar, 2012). At the same time, a difficult process can be discussed through with the use of social media networking programs within an organization.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Leveraging social media is therefore of great importance in your organization. You main include other programs that call for discussions as used by other organizations locally and elsewhere such as discussion forums, bulletin boards, blogs, as well as networking forums. These programs would act towards shaping your organization in a better way than when the use of traditional methods in marketing, hiring. You can also make use of the social media networking in improve your organizations learning perspective as well as employee development. Social media are increasingly being used to improve learning experiences within organizations and your organization can be one of these organizations, which develop employee skills through online learning programs (Manda, 2010). Employees working from home find social media an easy and confidential way of getting instructions from their employers or departments given a change or comment on their tasks. It is therefore recommended that you place a great value on social networks and leverage them with a core view of improving your organizations performance.


Broitman, R. (2008, December 3). Social Media Case Studies SUPERLIST- 23 Extensive Lists of             Organizations Using Social Media (UPDATED). Retrieved March 20, 2013, from            media-examples-superlist-17-lists-and-tons-of-examples/

Harikumar, N. (2012, 11 9). Leveraging Social Media for Employer Branding. Retrieved March 20, 2013, from   social-media/leveraging-social-media-employer-branding

Manda. (2010, March 21). Corporate Branding on Twitter: 50 Excellent Examples. Retrieved      March 20, 2013, from       branding-on-twitter-50-excellent-examples/

Odden, L. (2013, January 21). Scaling Social Media Selling – 7 Steps to Building Trust &             Credibility . Retrieved march 20, 2013, from                  trust-credibility/


Amlak and Tamweel Ratio Analysis

Amlak and Tamweel Ratio Analysis

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Importance of the Study. 2

Objective of the Study. 3

Background. 3

Analysis of the financial posture and annual reports. 3

Amlak Finance. 3

Tamweel PJSC.. 4

Ratio Analysis. 5

Analysis of organized results and different perceptions. 8

Conclusion. 9

References. 10



In this task, I take the part of a speculator looking to put a measure of USD 50,000 in the capital of an open constrained organization. To sagaciously contribute, one needs to do an exhaustive relative investigation of the yearly reports, securities exchange execution, news, methods, vision of the organizations, and so forth to achieve a conclusion. I have taken up two organizations in the money related area – to be specific, Amlak Finance PJSC and Tamweel PJSC for this study. As of now, I am working in Dubai in the IT deals area and both these organizations are my clients and they are intensely putting resources into IT security. This is the purpose behind my uncommon enthusiasm toward researching these organizations (Woodford, 2010).

Importance of the Study

Both Amlak and Tamweel are heading money related associations in the UAE, particularly noticeable in property fund. There is a considerable measure of rivalry between these organizations furthermore they are both recorded in money markets (Connolly et al,. 2010). An alternate explanation behind my enthusiasm toward putting resources into these organizations is that the Dubai land business is as of now blasting. Individuals have begun to put vigorously in the properties division of Dubai and there is more request than supply. “Property costs in Dubai look set to climb somewhere around 5% and 10% one year from now, as per another report, as deferrals in lodging tasks implies repressed interest stays unfulfilled. Costs will top in the second a large portion of 2008. It will students to understand financial analysis.  To the company it will help the organization to get the strengths and weakness of the organizations.
From my study, I have inevitably discovered that both Amlak Finance and Tamweel are running in benefit yet have their own preferences and detriments, I have chosen to part my speculation of USD 50,000 among both these organizations as I feel that this would decrease my danger in the meantime, boost my degree of profitability. I see that starting 2014, Tamweel is more guaranteeing than Amlak. Be that as it may, the business cost of Amlak’s shares is less expensive. Therefore, I have chosen to put USD 20,100 in Amlak Finance and USD 27,100 in Tamweel (Connolly et al,. 2010).

Objective of the Study

  1. The main objective is to evaluate the ratio analysis of the two companies to determine their success factors.


As a financial specialist, I have acquired the yearly reports of both Amlak Finance and Tamweel. They are publically accessible on the Internet. I might want to give a short on the Annual reports of both these organizations (Vogel, 2010).

Analysis of the financial posture and annual reports

Amlak Finance

Amlak Finance began its operations in 2003 and it has had a steady reputation of development and extension. Despite everything I recall that when I came to Dubai in 2012, they were a little association with around 70 workers and they had stand out office. They have been my clients for data security from that point forward. I have seen them become in the course of the most recent three years and now they have three work places in Dubai itself. Their staff quality has additionally expanded to 400 representatives. All these show a positive development of the association. With reference to the yearly report (Shaoul 2005), please find underneath a few screenshots that demonstrate the monetary record patterns, key degrees, resources and liabilities of Amlak Finance.

In the year 2014, we see that the there has been a critical development in Amlak nonetheless, in the meantime; there has likewise been an increment in the liabilities also. From, we see a 87.5% expansion in the benefits of the firm. Interestingly, demonstrates that the liabilities are additionally as high as the advantages (an increment of 87.5%) (Shaoul 2005). “In the year 2008, Amlak plans to attain a development of 70%. Amlak’s 2014 income was posted at AED 706 million, up 85% against 2013, with the organization’s essential line of business – i.e. – property money helping 65% of the aggregate income. In the mean time, the EPS saw an increment of 122%. There was additionally a general increment of 77% in the organization’s general volume of business.” In short, the organization is hinting at positive development – both as far as the size and number of representatives and as far as the terrible turn over. It’s imparts are performing great, and the general business sector criticism is great. Amlak has driven arrangements for development. It has gone into a joint wander in Saudi Arabia with Al Baraka Banking Group, Saudi Investment gathering Bank and Aseer bunch. In 2008, Amlak arrangements to open operations in Jordan, Qatar and Bahrain. They have likewise begun to rebuild their inner operations and to re-building of administration therefore enhancing center of every office. They have likewise marked a MOU with International Finance Corporation (IFC).

Tamweel PJSC

Tamweel was made in 2011 and like Amlak it has likewise hinted at noteworthy positive development. Tamweel is likewise our client regarding the matter of Information Security and in the UAE market Tamweel is the boss contender to Amlak Finance in terms of property account. This is one of the purposes behind my enthusiasm toward looking at the execution of Amlak money and Tamweel. The third organization that has as of late entered the race is Dubai First, then again, it has quite recently begun up. There are no different firms in the same alliance as Amlak and Tamweel. The yearly report of Tamweel is likewise publically accessible on the web.

Tamweel has reliably hinted at positive development year on year. The net benefit of Tamweel in the year 2014 was AED 451 million while in 2013 it was AED 153 million, we see that there has been an increment of 175% in net benefit. This has likewise been said by the executive of Tamweel – Sheik Khaled Bin Zayed Bin Saqr Al Nehayan in the Annual report 2014 of Tamweel. We additionally see an increment of 125.5% in the EPS (Earnings every offer). The EPS for Tamweel was AED 0.2 in 2013 and in 2014, it rose to AED 0.451 – This is altogether higher than Amlak. People in general responsibility for is 55%. The screenshot underneath demonstrates the asset report and the money stream articulation of Tamweel for the years 2013 and 2014.

We see that there is an increment of approx 161% in the advantages of the firm (From 3.26 Billion to 8.51 Billion AED). The advancement of the organization is clear as the staff quality of Tamweel expanded from 130 workers to 250 representatives (Approx 72% development) amid the 2013 – 2014 period. In the meantime, there has been a significant 3 fold increment of approx 348% in the liabilities and values of the organization. The shares of Tamweel are performing admirably in the stock exchange furthermore the general business sector input about the organization is sure. Different accomplishments of Tamweel incorporate winning a few recompenses, for example, “Best Islamic Home Finance Product” – from Banker Middle East and being recorded among the “50 most appreciated organizations” in the Gulf by Arabian Business magazine

Tamweel has confidence in concentrating on the ability advancement of its workers and staff. They contribute vigorously on preparing and advancement of their representatives. They likewise concentrate much on IT and improvement of methods, for example, credit hazard administration framework to improve their execution. Not at all like Amlak, Tamweel does not have operations outside the UAE right now. Notwithstanding, year 2008 is seen as the year to begin development to other inlet nations. They likewise want to attain Emiratisation in abundance of 30% by 2014. Tamweel likewise expects to concentrate on brand building exercises and attain further development by concentrating on bringing out new items, uncommon client administration and remarkable advancements.”

Ratio Analysis

In view of the yearly reports got, I have utilized ratio investigation to get more perceivability and to contribute sagaciously. Displaying data in ratio structure is more significant than communicating it in total terms particularly regarding choice making like choosing what amount & where to contribute. Degree investigation helps us comprehend and examine the budgetary proclamations of organizations. “Money related degree investigation is the computation and correlation of ratios which are gotten from the data in an organization’s monetary explanations. The level and recorded patterns of these degrees can be utilized to make surmizing around an organization’s money related condition, its operations and engaging quality as a speculation.” In short, monetary ratios toss light upon the budgetary examination and control. Asset report ratios demonstrate the money related position of the organization and the degrees identified with pay proclamation tosses light upon the monetary execution of the organization.

 Amlak Finance:

EPS * P/E = Market Price of Share

Profit Per Share (EPS) = Net Income (PAT)/ No. of Outstanding Shares Here Net wage is the pay accessible to value offer holders. This is only (Profit after assessment – benefit given to special offer holders) Value Earning Ratio (P/E numerous) = Market cost of Share/ EPS Weighted normal number of shares in 2014 = 1,500,000,000

Weighted normal number of Shares in 2013 = 1,500,000,000

Net Income(profit after Tax) for 2014 = AED 3,01,212,000

Net Income(profit after Tax) for 2013 = AED 1,27,423,000

EPS in 2014 = (301,212,000/ 1,500,000,000) = AED 0.200808 = AED 0.2 Approx EPS in 2013 = (127,423,000/ 1,500,000,000) = AED 0.086282 = AED 0.07

Approx This is a positive sign.

From the yearly report, we see that the estimation of each one offer was AED 1 in both 2013 and 2014. The business cost for offer was not specified as it varies now and again. “However from the Internet we comprehend that:

P/E ratio for 2013 = 52.7

P/E ratio for 2014 = 22.7”

Henceforth we can compute the business sector cost of offer = EPS * P/E various For 2013, the Market cost = 0.07*52.7 = AED 4.76

At 2014, the Market Cost = 0.2*22.7 = AED 4.58

We realize that the higher the EPS, the higher is the benefit of the organization. For existing offer holders higher the p/e ratio is ideal, on the other hand, for those wanting to contribute, a lower p/e degree is best as we can buy more imparts. In short, these figures demonstrate that Amlak is a decent prospect for speculation. On page 40 of the yearly report, we see that the proposed profit every offer is AED 0.10 Dividend pay-out degree = DPS/ EPS = 0.10/0.2 = 0.5 (for 2014)

Profit yield = DPS/Market Price of Share = 0.1/ 4.58 = 0.0218 => 2.18% (for 2014) we realize that the higher the Dividend Yield and the Dividend Payout degree, the more best it is for the financial specialist. We realize that the profit for resources is 4.17% in 2014 and it saw an increment from 2.72% in 2013.

The net overall revenue is given to be 42.87% for 2014 up from 34.33% in 2013 we realize that ROA = Net Profit Margin

Average Asset Turnover

Average Asset Turnover for 2014= 4.17/42.87 = 0.077

Average Asset Turnover for 2013 = 2.72/34.33 = 0.077

We realize that the bigger the normal resource turnover, the better it is so this is a positive sign.

Productivity Ratio = working cost/ net income.

GP Margin Ratio = Gross Profit/ Net Sales (Net deals = Total Sales – Excise Duty) NP Margin Ratio = Net Profit/ Net Sales. It is given to be 20.55% in 2014 as against 22.82% in 2013. In short, it demonstrates Amlak to be gainful.

Tamweel PJSC:

On sheet 25 of Tamweel’s yearly report 2014, we see that weighted normal number of shares in 2014 = 1,000,000,000. Weighted normal number of Shares in 2013 = 767,452,055

Net Income(profit net of executive’s compensation) for 2014 = AED 447,187,000 Net Income(profit net of chief’s compensation) for 2013 = AED 850,776,000 EPS in 2014 = (447,187,000/ 1,000,000,000) = AED 0.447 = AED 0.45 Approx EPS in 2013 = (850,776,000/ 767,452,055) = AED 1.1 Approx

We see that the EPS has descended. This is a negative sign. Be that as it may, the executive says that the pay from IPO Proceedings was 677 Million (Page5 of yearly report). In the event that we prohibit this, the EPS in 2013 was 0.2. Consequently we see that Tamweel has fared well in 2014. There is certain development. “From the Internet we comprehend

P/E ratio for 2014 = 14.6

P/E ratio for 2013 = 7.7”

Henceforth we can figure the business cost of offer = EPS * P/E various For 2014, the Market cost = 0.45*14.6 = AED 6.57. At 2013, The Market Cost = 0.20*7.7 = AED 1.54

We realize that the higher the EPS and P/E degree, the better it is for the shareholders. The cost of the offer has likewise gone up and this implies that alternate financial specialists are expecting positive development. Be that as it may, this additionally implies that as another speculator I need to contribute more to buy the shares of Tamweel as contrasted with Amlak. On page 28 under “Proposed Dividends” of the yearly report, we see that the proposed profit every offer is AED 0.218 Dividend pay-out degree = DPS/ EPS = 0.218/0.45 = 0.484 (for 2014) Dividend yield = DPS/Market Price of Share = 0.218/ 6.57 = 0.0331 => 3.31% (for 2014) Hence Tamweel scores over Amlak (which has a profit yield of 2.18%). From charts on (Screenshot), we realize that the profit for resources (ROA) was 7.66% as contrasted with 6.30% in 2013. Again Tamweel scores over Amlak. The Return on Equity (ROE) has likewise expanded from 13.12% in 2013 to 23.35% in 2014. The networking benefit has additionally expanded from AED 152,771,000 in 2013 to 451,237,000 in 2014 up by 175.36% in 2013. This is a brilliant sign.

Analysis of organized results and different perceptions


The ratios show that both the organizations are doing admirably and in examination, Tamweel is performing superior to Amlak as the PE ratio is bring down, the EPS, Return on Assets, Return on Equity and general benefit and overall revenue is higher. The overall revenue of Tamweel in 2013 is contorted in light of the arrival of IPO. Nonetheless, we should likewise remember that the expense of shares of Tamweel is higher than that of Amlak (Tamweel is at AED 6.5 and Amlak is at AED 4.58) this is agreeable to Amlak. The quantity of offer of Amlak is consistent at 1.5 billion, though the quantity of shares of Tamweel is at 1 billion yet expanding (Johnson et al,. 2005).


It is astute; I accept to put resources into both these organizations as every one of them is performing admirably. It is more secure to part the speculation as there is lesser danger included. In any case, I would put more in Tamweel than with Amlak as the offer execution capability of Tamweel is more. I would buy USD 27,700 value of shares of Tamweel (@ AED 6.5/offer) and USD 20,100 value of shares of Amlak (@ AED 5.0/offer). This would intimate that I would get 16,728 offer of Tamweel and 14,773 shares of Amlak. In this way I can have the greatest number of shares (31,721) part over two benefit making organizations with negligible danger and with most extreme possibility of ROI.



Revsine, L., Collins, D. W., Johnson, W. B., Collins, D. W., & Johnson, W. B. (2005). Financial reporting & analysis. New York, NY: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Shaoul, J. (2005). A critical financial analysis of the Private Finance Initiative: selecting a financing         method or allocating economic wealth?. Critical Perspectives on Accounting16(4), 441-471.

Vogel, H. L. (2010). Entertainment industry economics: A guide for financial analysis. Cambridge           University Press.

Wallentin, L., Yusuf, S., Ezekowitz, M. D., Alings, M., Flather, M., Franzosi, M. G., … & Connolly, S. J. (2010). Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin at different levels of    international normalised ratio control for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the         RE-LY trial. The Lancet,376(9745), 975-983.

Woodford, M. (2010). Financial intermediation and macroeconomic analysis.The Journal of Economic     Perspectives, 21-44.

Amish Studies – Health

Amish Studies – Health


The population of Amish approach health care in a different manner far from other denominations. Majority of Amish people prefer using traditional methods in treating the ill disadvantaged. This is mainly due to religious practices as well as cultural values they believe in.

According to Amish beliefs and culture, they only value to be attended by the doctors well known to them and who understands their medical practices on treatment. According to a survey by McCnnell and Hurst (2004), they noted that Amish patients are very good when it comes to be served by doctors who preserve their beliefs in the process of treatment (Blair & Hurst, 1997).  It is argued that Amish mostly prefer to be treated by doctors of their backgrounds. In the case of ER nurse and the Amish patient, the nurse  after discovering that the Amish patient was suffering from tuberculosis, which is a chronicle disease could have advised the patient’s son and his colleagues that under HIPAA and Public Health Disclosures act, that  if a patient is at risk of either contracting or spreading a disease, a health care practitioner has powers to disclose any available information related on patients health to expose out the disease but only if the covered entity is authorized by lawful mechanisms (Stevick, 2006). The nurse could have advised the patient’s colleagues that it was her duty as a professional healthcare practitioner to carry out her duties without considering any kind of beliefs they came with. Tuberculosis is a disease that threatens human safety of other individuals sand letting the patient go untreated was not a professional way of solving the issue. The nurse should have stood by public health rules that such a disease was a serious one and there was no way cultural beliefs could be given priority over the process of medical treatment

Case study

In the case study of Meyer (2004), it was on a cold morning when a call was received coming from a family of Amish. The family was seeking for assistance of their very old (93 years old) and sick mother been diagnosed of heart failure. The son of the sick mother was not at home but her daughter was present and she greeted the emergency response team and answered questions about her mother’s condition. The sick madam (Mrs. T) as well as other members of the family never needed any services of heroic kind all that they wanted was comfort care to her. Her condition was in a very bad state and she was breathing with hard labor with some kind of stoke respirations.

The ER team tried to explain to them the importance of medical treatment as well as offering oxygen to the patient to add comfort to her but they never saw any need for it. the nurses went back to that homestead three times but the family insisted on their cultural beliefs and not to depend on medical treatment. According to polacek & Martinez (2009), the relevant role of health practitioners is to provide medical treatment to people with some aspects of caring on cultural background beliefs of the patient (Polacek & Martinez, 2009). HealthCare facilities should also understand different beliefs as well as cultural traditions practiced by some cultural groups in order to deliver competent health services that are culturally effective. However, under HIPAA Privacy Rule, healthcare practitioners should be responsible when it comes to ensure health of the citizens. It is the duty of medical practitioners to treat all patients without any discrimination or considering one’s cultural belief, but should only consider professional treatment that is practical.


Black, P (2008). A guide to providing culturally appropriate care. Gastrointestinal Nursing

Blair, R & Hurst, C (1997). Amish health care. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health

Polacek, G & Martinez, R (2009). Assessing cultural competence at a local hospital system in      the United States. The Health Care Manager,

Stevick, P (2006). Beyond the plain and simple. A patchwork of Amish lives. Kent, OH: The       Kent State University Press.

Weyer, S, Hustey, V, Rathbun, L, Armstrong, L & Ronyak, J (2003). A look into the Amish          culture: What should we learn? Journal of Transcultural Nursing



The movie “why we fight” portrays about America and the reasonable (historical) sequence that lead to its war. The movie was about showing the American community how democracy is, how it works (both con and pro) the movie educates, and possibly forewarn about becoming vigilant of what is at times straining capitalistic trends.

The movie is a steady look at the structure of American war machines. it weaves memorable individual stories with remarks of beltway and military insiders. The film reviews the scorched scene of half a century’s military adventures, inquiring how–then telling why–a state of, by, plus for the people became loan -and- savings of a scheme whose survival relies on a state of continuous war.

Does America spend too much money on National Defense

The U S Today has become the world’s police.  Its military has more than 700 military bases within 130 countries globally. Total U.S. government’s military spending is almost equivalent to what the rest of the globe spends jointly in the meantime; the federal government literally drowns in debt. Once the Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld admitted in public that the Pentagon had lost track of a sum of 2.3 trillion dollars. They could not inform how it had been spent.

Russia and China pose as a bigger threat than ever before. North Korea is totally insane now and they keep nuclear arms.  There are other several other major regimes globally that work hard towards obtaining nuclear weapons. U.S. military is thinly spread presently that they might not react effectively if an actual threat emerged.  Trying to become the world police is not just incredibly costly; it is strategic suicide as well. The U.S. military rarely ever leaves once they get boots on the grounds of a place. Nations like Germany and Japan know that no one is going to attack them any moment soon.  They are under U.S protection.

U.S spends a lot of resources patrolling Iraq streets and bringing together Afghanistan goat herders that it does not even prepare for the actual terrorization.  If World War III breaks out soon, it would probably be the U S against an associated front of China and Russia.  But it is not preparing for fighting that war.  Instead, leaders endorse in cutting nuclear arsenal to the roots as they fixatedly pursue bogeymen in Middle East caves. In U.S’s effort toward policing the world, it spends a great deal of money, its military stretches far too thin plus it is not even preparing for fighting its real threats.

The U.S. military today has more than 700 bases (it is said that it is in fact above 1000 bases).  According to estimations, maintaining these bases yearly costs almost $100 billion. The reality is U.S. military spends more than the military expenditure of India, China, Japan, Russia, and the rest of NATO combined. Total U.S. military expenses makes up roughly 44 percent of the entire military spending on the globally. The Pentagon gobbles up the 56 percent of every discretionary federal government spending. Both the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq cost over $150 billion yearly. To this end, it is likely that the U.S. government has exhausted more than 373 billion dollars on Afghanistan war.

The U.S. uses extra on defense than on anything else, as well as Medicare. Security spending is concerning the overseas contingencies, Department of Defense, and departments like State Department Homeland Security, and the Veterans Affairs. The military spending initiates from the (DoD) Department of Defense. The Department still maintains ready forces, focusing on its ability to counter terrorism and association with organizations for example NATO. It is able to maintain the pay and the benefit point for 9.6 million lively duty staff, their families, plus veterans. By spending increasingly on complex nuclear weapons and nonproliferation it would focus on nuclear deterrence.

Other Security-related Agencies:

Other security-related organizations requested for an extra $130.6 billion. These include; $48 billion for the State Department programs, $61 billion for Veterans Affairs, $11.5 billion for Nuclear Administration, $39.5 billion for Homeland Security and $.5 billion for the Management Account of Intelligence Community.

Does America need to fight in all the wars it fights in?

America has been involved in quite a number of wars. It does not need to fight in all those wars. The following wars are those that America fought, just to mention but a few;

The 1812 War; Some describe it as Second Independence War. The US fought Great Britain to a stalemate; the independence of America was assured.

The Mexican-American War; The dispute over how Texas joined the Union led to US invasion of California and the balancing of the Southwest

The Civil War; Civil war was the bloodiest war of America since brother fought brother.

The Spanish-American; in this war, America became the world power when it defeated the Spanish.

World War I; Millions lost lives in Europe’s fields, sometimes as they fought over some disputed yards.

World War II; it was war similar to no other. It covered every corner of the world

The Korean War; To some, it is termed as forgotten war. For a period of two years, America fought a war to free South Korea.

Operation Enduring Freedom; On the 11th of September 2001, War came to America when NY and Washington were attacked. Not ever since the Antietam Battle had a lot of Americans died in a day. On that September, Al Qaeda network terrorist attacked United States. The United States responded through attacking of Afghanistan bases and moved to force Taliban who supported Al Qaeda out of power. This war is one that America really needed to fight.

Iraqi Freedom; On 19th March 2003 the United States attacked Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein’s government. More than three years later, troops of the US go on fighting a revolution there. The Iraq war can be separated into two different stages. In the first stage coalition forces and U.S advanced quickly on Baghdad. Saddam Hussein regime quickly fell and so the US began administering Iraq straight. The second stage has existed from mid April 2003 to date. During that time, Iraqis were helped to decide on their own government by the U.S. meanwhile US forces were invaded by both the old regime supporters plus the groups associated with Al Qaeda. Making matters worse fighting soon started between Sunnis and Shiites in Iraq. Today more than three years later the Sunnis and Shiites still hold virtual. America really needed to fight this war.

A smaller Department of Defense makes sense. Foremost, the Iraq war has finished. Secondly, elimination of Osama Bin Laden, which put al Qaeda “network of terror on a defeat path” according to D.O.D. Thirdly, DOD is moving its attention from keeping major, extended wars. Instead, it is avoiding “old-fashioned Cold War-era schemes” and spending additionally in reconnaissance, surveillance and intelligence — the tactic that led to Osama bin Laden’s downfall.





















Works Cited

Michael, Snyder. The Economic Collapse; 12 Facts That Show America Can’t Afford To Police

The World Anymore.  Web, 13th Dec, 2010.

N.B. | WASHINGTON, DC . Is America spending too much on homeland security?

Web 30th April, 2011.

Martin, Kelly. American History Timeline, American Involvement in Wars from Colonial Times

to the Present Web


America’s Post-Civil War Growing Pains




America’s Post-Civil War Growing Pains














America’s Post-Civil War Growing Pains

Civil War occurred between 1861 and 1865. In 1865-77, the federal government undertook to reconstruct the nation so as to restore it to its former status and unite the states. This was the Reconstruction Period. It was overseen mainly by President Andrew Johnson. The period was characterized by freeing of slaves and a search for more rights for the blacks. During the President’s Lincoln, he succeeded in freeing the slaves. However, racism still persisted and his efforts to achieve equality for the blacks were thwarted by radical republicans within the congress.

In April 1865, President Lincoln was assassinated and was succeeded by President Andrew Johnson. Under his leadership, the process of achieving reconstruction was less efficient and he blocked some of the bills that would have given more freedom, protection and equality to the blacks. President Lincoln’s assassination had an effect on the realization of the reconstruction goals. The goals would have been achieved quicker than they were and the blacks would have gained more rights than they did. Lincoln wanted to reunite the nation by being lenient to the southern states thereby leading to the immediate end of the war while the congress comprising mainly of republicans wanted to punish them. After the death of Lincoln, the congress took over and forced the south to submission. This led to resentment and strained relations between the Northerners and Southern side.

In 1868 the congress, under the rule of the radical republicans, took control of the reconstruction of the southern states. They gave voting rights to the blacks so as to gain their support. They passed the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments which ended slavery, gave citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States and gave voting rights to people from all races in the United States. These were major events during the period. It led to the current situation where blacks and whites had equal rights and they were allowed to take part in the political system by voting. Public state schools were also built to enhance education. The schools were segregated by race and every race had control over their own schools. The railway system also started improving.

            The period after the reconstruction was known as the gilded age and occurred between 1877 and 1900. It was characterized by industrialization and urbanization. Electricity was being used in factories and there were more heavy industries such as coal mining coming up. The country’s rail road and other transport infrastructure. The entertainment industry also improved greatly. With the industrialization, workers had more time to relax and ways of keeping themselves entertainment. Labor unions also came up to fight for the rights of workers including wages and time off from work (Bensel, 2000). This improved the standard of living among the workers to some extent. However, the labor unions did not achieve major success until the early 20th century.

Important invention and improvements made during this period are the telephone, train improvements and printing presses which improved communication and transportation. The rich and politicians exploited the weak laws to be able make their businesses more prominent in their market and prevent competition. This led to oppression of people and especially workers and immigrants.

The two major historical turning points in the reconstruction period were the assassination of Abraham Lincoln which enabled the congress to take over the reconstruction of the southern states. The amendments of the constitution to abolish slavery and allow blacks to vote in the US were also major events in the history. The impact of these events was enabling the congress to acquire more powers as they were voted for by the blacks. The 13th amendment abolished slavery while the 14th one game every person born or neutralized in America federal civil rights and the 15th one allowed everyone to vote despite their race. These legislations are still in effect.



Bensel, R.F. (2000). The Political Economy of American Industrialization, 1877-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Americans with Disabilities law

Americans with Disabilities law

The Americans with disabilities law makes it illegal for any employer with more employees to victimize an individual who is qualified and is disabled. This includes when hiring, recruiting or promoting employees. The Michigan Persons with Disabilities Civil Rights Act, which is the same as the Americans with disabilities law, covers employers who have more than one employee. The American with disabilities law applies to people who have mental or physical impairment that significantly limits the most important life activities of a person. These activities may be standing, breathing or walking. To add on that, examples of these disabilities include people having conditions such as mental retardation, hypertension, and epilepsy among others. Any person who is disabled must be able to carry out the tasks of the job, having or lacking any accommodation, so that he or she may be protected by the American with disabilities law. In addition, the person must be eligible for the job position by having employment experience, skills and any qualification standards needed in a job.

In conclusion, the American with disabilities law is vital because it prevents people with disabilities from being discriminated in the various places of work. On the other hand, the law does not need any employee to keep lazy or incompetent employees. The law needs an employee to be qualified for a given job position before looking for protection. I support this law because discrimination against disabled persons is a severe problem in many countries. Many people who are disabled are not been supported as they need. Even though we live in a world that is unfair, there are certain people or laws such as Americans with disabilities that try to make things correct.


Muskovitz, M. (2012). The Americans With Disabilities Act- An Employer’s Responsibilities. Retrieved: 27 Nov. 2012 from: <>

Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)

Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)


Chapter 1: Introduction. 1

Statement Of The Problem.. 1

What Went Wrong?. 2

Deficiencies In The Evidence. 3

Significance. 4

Audiences. 5

Research Question. 5

Organization. 7

Theoretical Framework. 7

Tinto’s Theory Of Student Departure. 7

Pre-Entry Attributes. 8

Goals/Commitments. 9

Institutional Experiences. 10

Personal And Normative Integrations. 11

Goals/Commitments. 11

Validating Tinto’s Theory. 12

Applying The Framework. 12

Pre-Entry Attributes. 13

Goals And Commitments. 13

Institutional Experiences. 14

Personal/Normative Integrations. 15

Goals And Commitments. 15

Conclusion. 16

Chapter 1: Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) require colleges/universities to provide access/support services such as American Sign Language interpreters ensuring that deaf students have full and equal participation in academic and social systems of college.  Since the enactment of the law in 1990, a number of colleges/universities offering access/support services are rising. Concurrently, the enrollment of deaf students in mainstream postsecondary institutions has also increased dramatically, (Richardson, Marschark, Sarchet, & Sapere, 2010). It is reported that 468,000 deaf students enroll in colleges/universities per year, (Schroedel, Watson, & Ashmore, 2003).  Despite the increase and the availability of access/support services in higher education, deaf students struggle to attain a goal of completing a degree but eventually withdraw from college bare hands, (Boutin, 2008; Lang, 2002; Richardson et al., 2010, Smith, 2004; Stinson & Walter, 1997). The attrition rate is alarmingly high as Stinson & Walter (1997) report that 75 percent of all deaf students in higher education fail even with access/support services being provided.  As compared to hearing students, the withdrawal rate of deaf students in 4-year colleges/universities was 140 percent higher, (Myers & Taylor, 2000).

What went wrong?

The literature does not provide a definitive answer but probable factors that explain the failure rate. The probable factors identified in the literature are pre-entry attributes, academic and social interactions, and access to support services.  Pre-entry attributes are communication preferences, educational experiences, academic and social skills and goals/commitments. Not all deaf students share a similar communication preference or mode of communication (American Sign Language, aural/oral communication or signing systems such as Signed Exact English) but each student’s preference is based on his/her biological variables and cultural exposure, (Myers & Taylor, 2000). A mode of communication affects deaf students’ ability to communicate and socialize with other members of the postsecondary institution, (Stinson & Walter, 1997).  Deaf students’ educational experiences vary widely in that some attend a residential school, some attend day (non-residential) school and/or mainstream school while some attend a mainstream school on a full-time basis, (Myers & Taylor, 2000).  Several studies found a great variation in deaf students’ academic and social skills, (Albertini, Kelly, & Matchett, 2001; Stinson & Walter, 1997) and the variation had an effect on deaf students’ academic and social integrations.  Stinson & Walter (1997) found that deaf students being committed to a goal of completing a degree are more likely to persist till graduation than those without a commitment. When deaf students begun their social and academic interactions, some challenges emerged and they were participation, cultural differences, teacher’s lack of sensitivity/understanding about communication needs, isolation, and effect of access to support services, (English, 1993; Foster & Elliott, 1986; Foster & Brown, 1988; Foster & Brown, 1991; Foster, Long, & Snell, 1999; Lang 2002; Long, Stinson, Saur, & Liu, 1993; Menchel, 1995; Saur, Layne, Hurley, & Opton, 1986; Saur, Popp-Stone, & Hurley-Lawrence, 1987).  Several studies reported that access services such as sign language interpreters did not warrant full and equal access, (Foster et al., 1999; Lang, 2002; Marschark, Sapere, Convertino, & Seewagen, 2005; Stinson & Walter, 1997; Walter & DeCaro, 1986). The problems with accessing services are time lag in receiving information as well as delivering information and qualifications of interpreters such as language proficiency, experiences, and content knowledge.  In addition, colleges/universities hold a notion that providing access/support services makes deaf students equal to hearing their peers in all aspects of college life. This makes it difficult for deaf students make a case that they are deprived of access due to poor-quality services, (Lang, 2002; Foster et al., 1999; Walter & DeCaro, 1986).

Deficiencies in the Evidence

There are several noticeable deficiencies in the literature that need to be addressed.   First, most studies of deaf students are concerned about persistence or withdrawal. Sample deaf students are from the same institution, the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID).  NTID is one of the colleges of Rochester Institute of Technology and has a relatively large population of deaf students.  NTID is also well prepared to accommodate deaf students of diverse backgrounds and needs.  Thus, the findings based on NTID students’ experience cannot make a generalized statement about deaf students who attend a mainstream school with a relatively small population of deafened students.  Secondly, most studies target a whole group of deaf students regardless of their diverse backgrounds (e.g. Their identity, language preference, and experiences) instead of a homogeneous group. A group of deaf students who use American Sign Language as their native language and share a similar cultural identity, has different needs and experiences from a group of hard of hearing students who use oral/aural communication as their primary mode of communication and view themselves as a part of the hearing world. To build an accurate picture of what went wrong, it is important to sample a homogeneous group.  Thirdly, it appears that a very few studies primarily examine the effect of access of support services (in particular, sign language interpreters) on deaf students’ process of persistence or withdrawal.  There are more than 2,300 mainstream post secondary institutions in the U.S serving deaf students and they only enroll 10 or fewer deaf students, (Smith, 2004).  It is essential to gain a better understanding of the magnitude of the impact of access/support services because they may offer a key clue to the “what went wrong” question.


The attrition rate of deaf students is significant because it affects deaf people’s future employment.  Failing to obtain a Bachelor’s degree makes it more difficult for deaf people to find a job with a decent or equal earning.  Some may end up asking their government for financial assistances such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI).  In 2009, the economic reality of the deaf population in the U.S. did not seem optimistic.  More than 1.4 million deaf people were employed full-time though out the year and this is almost 20 percent less than that of hearing people, (Erikson and von Schrader, 2010). Deaf people earned 50 cents for every dollar their hearing counterparts made, (Erikson and von Schrader, 2010).  Worse yet, the U.S. Department of Education (2006) reported that, “over a lifetime, an individual with a bachelor’s degree will earn an average of $2.1 million – nearly twice as much as a worker with only a high school diploma” (as cited in Albertini, Kelly, & Matchett, 2011, p. 1).   Approximately 430,000 or 11.5 percent of deaf people were recipients of SSI, (Erikson and von Schrader, 2010).

If no corrective actions are undertaken to address the attrition of deaf students in higher education, the economic outlook for deaf people will only get worse.  Without a bachelor’s degree, deaf people may be increasingly unemployed, suffer a wide gap in their relative earnings and increase their dependence on the government benefits, in particular, SSI.


            This study will benefit college/university officials, deaf students and researchers in the field of higher education with a focus on deaf students.  College/university officials develop a better understanding after learning about the experiences of deaf students with support services.  They use their understanding to develop a corrective action to retain deaf students. This is what benefits deaf students. They are also given an opportunity to have their voice heard.  Because there are a few researchers who have seen the impact of support services, it is the researchers hope that his study will help other researchers realize that more research is needed for the relationship between support services and persistence.

Research Question

The problem of practice raises two exploratory questions in order to gain a better understanding of the Deaf students’ life experiences of a particular phenomenon.   The questions are as follows:

  1. How do Deaf students in mainstream college settings experience academic access services?
  2. How do Deaf students in mainstream college settings experience social access services?

Before the researcher explains the rationale behinds the questions, it is important to understand the distinction between access services and support services and the inclusion of “Deaf” with a capital D.  Access services are offered for those who seek a communication access (American Sign Language interpreters, CARTs, or F.M. Systems) for their academic and social activities.   Support services, on the other hand, provide tutoring, counseling and academic advising.  The inclusion of “Deaf” with a capital D is important.  The researcher’s study targets Deaf students whose native language is American Sign Language (ASL) and have a cultural identity.  Those deaf students who do not use ASL will not be included in this study because they have completely different needs and experiences.  It is important to include “mainstream college settings” in the question because the setting is where most Deaf students use access services.

The questions are centered on process, not outcome.  The questions are designed to magnify a particular phenomenon to better understand the process of experiencing academic and social access services.  The process occurs when a Deaf student first uses access services such as an ASL interpreter in the classroom to learn or to interact with his/her instructor or peers (academic context) or when a Deaf student participates in extracurricular activities or social events using access services (social context).   This process is relevant because Deaf students’ academic and social experiences are dependent on the effectiveness of access services as indicated in the literature.  One study reveals that access services do not warrant full and equal access and many colleges and universities do not realize this, (Foster, Long, & Snell, 1999).  Thus, it is important to explore how Deaf students’ academic and social experiences take shape through access services.


This document is organized in a way to build a clear and sound plan for a study.  The plan first establishes and elaborates a theoretical framework that the study uses as a lens.  Once the framework is established, an investigation into the literature on deaf college student takes place.  The literature review builds a clear picture of what has been researched and what has not been researched.  Following the review, the researcher introduces a research design.  The design shows how the problem of practice will be studied.

Theoretical Framework

Tinto’s Theory of Student Departure

The researcher employs the Vincent Tinto’s theory of student departure as a lens to examine the problem of practice being explored.

Tinto’s theory draws on three different works – Emile Durkheim’s suicide theory (1961), William Spady’s (1970) application of Durkheim’s theory of students’ departure, and Arnold Van Geenep’s (196) rites of passage – to develop a theory of students’ departure (Tinto, 1993).  In Durkheim’s work, suicide is considered more likely when a person struggles to integrate and foster relationships within a community.  In order to be a part of the community, Durkheim suggested two forms of integration: social and intellectual, (Tinto, 1993).  Spady extended Durkheim’s theory to student persistence in college.  Students may consider withdrawal if they are unable to integrate into the community of the college, (Tinto, 1993).  Tinto turned to Van Gennep’s work that examined the movement of individuals from a membership group to another group or from a status to another status.  Van Gennep identified three stages – separation, transition, and incorporation – and Tinto incorporated these into his theory, (Tinto, 1993).  Separation occurs when the student separates from his or her communities (e.g. Family and high school), transition occurs when the student leaves the society of the high school and enters the society of the college, and incorporation occurs when the student is fully integrated into the college community, (Tinto, 1993).   Tinto combined all three works to develop a theory of student departure.

The Tinto’s explanatory framework is centered on “the longitudinal process of departure as it occurs within an institution of higher education” (Tinto, 1993, p. 112).   The longitudinal process of departure begins when the student enters the institution and ends when the student exits the institution with or without a degree. It is important to note that the model primarily focuses on those students who depart voluntarily, not those who are dismissed involuntarily.  Within the longitudinal process of departure, there is a process of interactions among individuals within the institution, (Tinto, 1993, p. 113).  The individuals are students, faculty, staff and other members of the institution and they interact at different levels on a daily basis.  The process of interactions has a significant bearing on the student’s persistence.  “… One must view college drop out as the outcome of a longitudinal process of interactions between the individual and the institution…” (Tinto, 1975, p. 103).  Tinto identified six components within the longitudinal process of interactions and they are pre-attributes, goals or commitments, institutional experiences, personal or normative integrations, goals or commitments and outcomes (See Appendix A).  All components are interactive and interdependent in a way that one or several parts are influenced by one or several other parts.

Pre-entry attributes.

The first component of the interactive process is pre-entry attributes. Students come to the institution with a wide range of personal attributes.  Such attributes consist of personal attributes (e.g., sex, race, disability), family background (e.g., social status and parental education), skills and abilities (e.g., academic and social), prior educational experience (e.g., grade point average), dispositions (e.g., motivation, intellectual, social, and political preferences), and financial resources, (Tinto, 1993). The student’s personal attributes have a potential effect on his or her goals and the process of interaction with the members of the institution.  Tinto (1993) cautions that pre-entry attributes do not guarantee persistence or departure but do affect the process of persisting or departure.  For instance, some studies find that those students with high academic proficiency (academic skills/abilities) are more likely to attain a higher G.P.A than those with low academic proficiency.  This may help in the process of persistence but do not predict the outcome – degree completion or withdrawal.


The second component of the process is goals/commitments.  Tinto (1993) also includes intentions and motivation in the component. A student establishes a goal based on his/her intentions to attain a degree or to obtain a specific occupation.  It is common that most students are uncertain about their occupational goals but it is not a concern as long as they are able to choose a path by the end of the first year, (Tinto, 1993).  The student’s goal(s) have an impact on the process of persistence.  “Generally speaking, the higher the level of one’s educational or occupational goals, the greater the likelihood of college completion” (Tinto, 1993, p. 38).  Commitments reflect the student’s willingness to put time and effort in attaining his/her goal(s).  There are three types of commitment: goal, institutional and external, (Tinto, 1993). The student who is committed to educational and/or occupational goals has a goal commitment. The student who is committed to attain an educational goal(s) within a particular institution in which s/he enrolls has an institutional commitment. The student who is committed to occupational or familial needs has an external commitment. These commitments are important to understand because they indicate the student’s level of commitment towards the attainment of degree completion.  The student’s level of commitment could become an important part of either the process of persistence or the process of departing, (Tinto, 1993).

Institutional experiences.

            The third component of the process is institutional experiences.  Students develop their institutional experience as they begin the process of interactions within academic and social systems of the institution.  Each system has formal and informal environments.

The formal academic system is where the institution puts the students’ intellectual abilities and academic skills to the test.  For example, students have to learn and understand classroom lectures, do assignments and take tests.  These activities demand and evaluate their intellectual abilities and academic skills.  The informal academic system is where students have an opportunity to interact with their instructors outside the classroom.  Tinto (1993) explains that interactions in the formal and informal academic system could have a significant impact on the process of persisting due to congruence or incongruence. Congruence occurs when there is a match between the institution’s academic demands and the student’s skills and abilities. On the other hand, a mismatch results in incongruence.

In the formal social system, the institution offers social opportunities for students to socialize with their peers or other members of the institution. Such social opportunities are extracurricular activities consisting of sports, student body government, or other college-sponsored events.  In the informal social system, students offer interactive opportunities either on-campus or off-campus.  As the academic system, the student’s interactive experience arising from the formal and informal social system could affect his/her process of persistence due to congruence/incongruence. The student would have a positive interactive experience if his/her social values, preferences and behavior styles were similar to that of the members within the institution.

As indicated above, the process of interactions with the members within both systems could produce either positive or negative institutional experience.  The student’s institutional experience could either facilitate or hinder his/her process of academic and social integrations.

Personal and normative integrations

The fourth component of the process is personal and normative integrations.  Successful academic and social integrations are as a result of positive institutional experiences.  Positive institutional experiences are a result of congruence between the student’s skills, values and interests and the institution’s demands, values and interests in both academic and social systems, (Tinto, 1993).    It is possible that the student persists if one aspect of integration (academic or social) is achieved but Tinto (1993) finds achieving of academic integration to be more important than social integration.  Nevertheless, if the student is integrated into both academic and social systems, it almost warrants that s/he persists till degree completion, (Tinto, 1993).


The fifth component of the process is goals/commitments. While it is similar to the second component, goals/commitments, the difference is that, at this stage, students may alter their goals/commitments by strengthening or weakening their commitments depending on their institutional experiences.   Tinto (1993) finds that those who have a high level of positive interaction are more likely to persist till degree completion because their interactive experiences make their goals and commitments strongest, (p. 116).  External commitments become important at this stage because students live off-campus and commute to college.  Also, the student participates in external communities such as internships, jobs and volunteers, (Tinto, 1993).  External commitments could alter the student’s goals/commitments and eventually affect the student’s process of persistence.


            There are two outcomes – persistence till degree completion or departure without a degree.  The outcome is contingent upon what rises out of the process of interactions between the student and members of the institution.

Validating Tinto’s Theory

            Terenzini and Pascarella (1980) examined six studies that used Tinto’s model for validation of Tinto’s work. The researchers found that Tinto’s model was useful for examining the dynamics of college withdrawal. All constructs except pre-entry attributes within the model were significant when observing the process of persisting or departure.  The studies were unable to predict one’s persistence based on their background traits but cautioned that one’s background traits were important as they could influence the students’ interactive experiences.

Applying the Framework

Tinto’s model, as described above, is applicable to the problem of practice being studied.  The model affords an opportunity to gain a better understanding of the problem that Deaf students have experienced by examining their experiences with the process of interactions within the institution.  In this section, the researcher will explain how the model will be used in his study.

Pre-entry attributes.

            Deaf students’ pre-entry attributes will be considered as they have an impact on their process of departing. Deaf students’ backgrounds are widely diverse in terms of educational experiences, academic skills, personal identity and communication preferences, (Stinson, Scherer, & Walter, 1987).  While Tinto does not mention communication preferences, it is an important attribute for deaf students because not all deaf students share a similar communication mode, language, or sign systems.  Some uses American Sign Language, some uses sign systems such as Signed Exact English and some use oral method.  This variation affects the types of access services that the institution must provide to ensure equal access and it also affects how deaf students interact with their hearing peers and instructors.

Another important attribute to consider is personal identity. One cannot assume that all deaf students share a similar identity just because of their deafness. Some students embrace a Deaf culture as a part of their identity and some do not embrace it and see themselves as a part of the hearing culture. This distinction could have an impact on their interactions with hearing students, teachers and other members of the institution.

In this study, the researcher targets Deaf students who use ASL and embrace the Deaf culture as a part of their identity. These pre-entry attributes will be considered when Deaf students’ experiences are being explored.

Goals and commitments.

            Boutin (2008), identified little research on Deaf students’ goals/commitments.  It is necessary to know what goals and commitments Deaf students have prior to entry and after the end of the first year.  It would be relevant for this study if it is found that Deaf students alter their initial goals/commitments during the process of interaction within the institution. Such an alternation may help understand the Deaf students’ interactive experience and could be related to ASL interpreters.

Institutional Experiences.

            This component is the primary interest of the study because it is when the deaf students begin their interactions with their peers, faculty, staff and other members within the academic and social systems.  The process of interactions is what produces institutional experiences and the experiences are what the researcher wants to explore.  When deaf students begin their process of interactions, they will need ASL interpreting service because their native language is ASL and most members of the mainstream institution do not know ASL. ASL interpreting services does not only provide them access to communication between them and other members of the institution, but also give them the opportunity to demonstrate their abilities, skills, interests and values.  Also, ASL interpreting service makes it possible for deaf students to learn about the institution’s intellectual demands, interests and values. This is important because, according to Tinto (1993), in order to have a positive institutional experience, there has to be congruence between the student’s academic skills/abilities, interests and values and the institution’s intellectual demands, interests and values. ASL interpreting services does not warrant congruence but make it possible for both deaf students and the institution to interact and exchange information. It is possible that deaf students experience incongruence even with access services and it has to do with a mismatch between their personal attributes and the institution’s characteristics. A lack of or limited access to services could result in incongruence because of limited communication between the student and the institution.

While a provision of ASL interpreting service has an effect on deaf students’ institutional experience, there is another aspect of ASL interpreting service that has a potential effect – quality of interpreting. One study indicated that providing ASL interpreting service does not necessarily mean that the Deaf students gain full and equal access to communication, (Stinson et al., 1987).  Colleges/universities have to hire qualified interpreters who have a formal training in ASL interpretation and are proficient in ASL.  Some colleges/universities do not understand what a qualified interpreter means and they may end up hiring interpreters with limited experience with interpreting or limited proficiency in ASL. This has a significant impact on Deaf

Personal/normative integrations.

            This component is the outcome of the student’s institutional experiences.  A positive institutional experience facilitates the process of academic and social integrations while a negative institutional experience hinders it.  Those students with negative institutional experiences are more likely to withdraw because they are unable to fit into the college life, (Tinto, 1993). Because the study focuses on what produces academic and social experiences (process) rather than the outcome, the researcher will not explore this component as extensively as other components.

Goals and commitments.

            Students may alter their goals and commitments based on their institutional experiences, academic/social integrations, and external commitments.  For the study, the researcher will explore whether Deaf students’ institutional experiences alter their goals and commitments.


            There is a body of literature examining both the deaf students who voluntarily withdraw from college and the deaf students who persist till they graduate.  Given that the problem of practice focuses on 75 percent of deaf students who departed without finishing a degree, the researcher is interested in exploring the process of departure that deaf students experience.


The Tinto’s model is an application framework for this study because it is an explanatory and interactive-based model.  This study is centered on Deaf students’ interactive experience in a mainstream setting.  With Tinto’s framework, the researcher will examine six constructs of the interactive process and how they shape Deaf students’ experience of academic and social participations within the institution. This examination leads to a better understanding of the phenomenon that Deaf students experienced.

The Global socio-political matters never cease to mesmerize any interested character

The Global socio-political matters never cease to mesmerize any interested character, since the times of civilization arrived to the epoch of colonization up to the time of independence. The cold war era then followed whereby the Soviets were gradually but firmly outmaneuvered by the more resourceful capitalist of the time.

The aftermath of the cold war epoch resulted to the growing influence of what some individuals of our generation refer to as quasi- governments (for example the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)).

The World Bank and the IMF subsequently took the responsibility of the global economic police information especially the poorer states how they are suppose to spend their funds. So as to get more monetary assistance, these Bretton Woods institutions ordered that nations open up their markets for liberalization within the “Structural Adjustment Programs” that motivated state governments to finance privatization initiatives, ahead of public and welfare services.  Parallel to this was the impact of multinational organizations such as the United Nations (UN) also majorly structuring the global issues.

Towards the new millennium matters took a divergent route. Out of nowhere, we were being feed with the rhetoric known as globalization, which is an umbrella idiom for sophisticated series of social, political, economic and technological transformations viewed as enhancing interaction and interdependence between companies and people in unfortunate locations.  Within the fields of political economy and economics it generally implies to the growing integrations of economies all over the world, and more specifically in terms of financial flows and trade.  The term in certain cases also refers to the movement of knowledge (technology) and people (labor) across the globe.

Within its most basic principles, nothing is mysterious concerning globalization. But at the moment certain individuals are arguing that globalization has majorly advantaged the already well-established world economies and has offered them leverage not just to trade with the entire world but also affect their general politics and lifestyles.  Some have said that USA is deploying globalization as a mechanism of “corporate imperialism”, the one which crushes the human rights of the growing communities and purports to bring forth prosperity, yet frequently simply results to profiteering and plundering.

The other depressing impact of globalization has been the cultural imperialism through cultural assimilation.  This may be further illustrated by a scenario of exportation of the artificial needs or wants and the inhibition or destruction of indigenous local cultures. This then, lands me on the essence of my submission. When viewed critically, globalization is gradually moving toward Americanization. For the purposes of clarity, at the start of 1900, the term referred to captivating new immigrants and transforming then to Americans… regardless whether they wanted to maintain their customary ways or not. This system often entailed adjusting to American customs, dress and culture and learning English.

Critics affirm their concerns that globalization is nothing short of imposition of the cultures of the Americans on the whole world.  To be precise, the most evident symbol of globalization appears to be the spread of cola (Coca Cola products and Pepsi) and hamburgers to almost every nation on earth.

In reference to the materials from (, in one of the latest columns exploring why terrorists hate US, Thomas Freidman, a champion for globalization wrote…”globalization is in a number of approaches is Americanization: globalization drinks Coke and Pepsi; puts on Mickey Mouse, and uses an IBM laptop operating on Windows 98. A lot of societies globally cannot get enough of it, while some view it as a deep threat”.

The entire world appears to be going by Uncle Sam (US) and abandoning their original way of life, even the Chinese “tight air” society has not been spared. Americanization is the modern term used for the effect of the USA has on other nation’s culture, whereby they substitute their authentic culture with the culture of the America.  When met unwillingly, it has unconstructive connotation, when voluntarily sought, it has a constructive connotation.

How we get Americanized?

The United States of America which has the worlds’ versatile know army and the largest economy, has taken massive steps in persuading the entire world to act and think like them.  A lot of individuals particularly Europeans have frequently looked down on the Americans claiming that they don’t have any culture.

When it comes to fashion, the American casual style of wearing T-shirts, sport shoes and jeans is now acceptable and common in a number of places. The USA music industry has also been instrumental in affecting the dress of some individuals across the world. So many youths across the globe have imitated to dress codes of the prominent American rap musicians such as Tupac Shakur (R.I.P), 50-Cent, Snoop Dogg and Eminem.

Globally the United States of America is probably well-known is for successful and numerous fast food chains. Such franchises comprising Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald’s are famous for simply selling readymade foods for example, soft drinks, hamburgers, chips (French fries), ice cream and fried chicken. Though undoubtedly popular, these foods, the mode of preparations have been criticized as being unhealthy by the dietitians. It has therefore, become some kind of a stereotype to related American cookery with junk food and obesity. The entire world is now complete with similar eatery joints.  Within Africa most of them as known as “take a ways”.

The popular Culture:

This American Culture transmission has been majorly through numerous conduits with electronic media being the leading medium. The Television has specifically contributed a lot in Americanizing the people who consume images particularly from the Hollywood. The Hollywood characters have made us to admire the rough cigar-smoking folks in the Casinos, the slender legged females and to believe to the stories of rags to riches which are popular tag lines of the films.  We adore rap music, jazz, hip-hop as well as country music all of which were engineered in the US.  And because of such adoration, a lot of countries have designed equivalents of Grammy Awards for the music and Oscar Awards for the movies. Just have a look at the KISIMA awards in Kenya, PAM awards in Uganda and the international Kora Awards performed yearly in South Africa. Most countries have also forged ahead to develop theme parks applying the principles of the American Disney. This phenomenon has also resulted to the acceptability and popularity of what is commonly referred to as American English. In Rwanda I have come across so many posters of schools alleging to be teaching American English. A lot of young people are currently using this kind of English taking it as the in thing.

We should not overlook the massive impact that the U.S has manifested in the internet development and its consequent control. Recall the conference that took place in Tunisia three years ago where countries were complaining about the internet control by the United States.  They were suggesting that an International body should be given that responsibility, but this proposal didn’t bear any fruit.

The American Sports particularly basketball is now a popular game in the whole world, especially among students in colleges.

The obvious determination of the United States of America to nominate itself as “Mr. Fix it all” is somehow immature but hopeful belief by the Americans that very problem could be fixed with sufficient effort and commitment. This in some instances leads them into situations which are problematic for example the Iraq and Vietnam.  Though in some situations the US attitude of fix it all has positively resulted into massive outpouring of humanitarianism. This is overtly demonstrated by the huge aids that Americans are donating to the poor countries.

In conclusion, thus, the global phase is at an era of American take-over in several ways than one can think of. The Americans appear to have hijacked globalization.  The world too, appears to be bellowing for more of the Yankee Kind of lifestyle.  Nonetheless, merely demonizing or dismissing globalization as simply Americanization is deceiving.  Globalization has the capacity to change much more than merely the food or the movies the society consumes.


Hagwati, J. (2009). In defense of Globolization. Oxford, New York. Oxford University Presss.

Sheila, L. (2010). Globalization and Belongings: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. Cambridge University Press.

Hopskins, G. (2009). Re orient Global economy in the Asian Age. U.C Berkeley Press.

Hobson, M.  (2008). Eastern Origins of Western Civilization. Cambridge University Press.

Weatherford, J. (2010). Making of the Modern World







American Veterinary Medical Association. The Veterinary Profession, 4 Jan.  1996 . Web. 27 March 2014.

In this article, the author highlights the nature of the work of a veterinarian, the qualification and training, working conditions, job outlook, and career advancement in veterinary. Veterinarians are doctors who diagnose and treat pets and farm animals such as goat, sheep, and cattle. They treat injuries and diseases in animals and offer preventive care to humans to protect them from diseases borne by the animals. In addition, they perform surgeries, administer vaccinations, dress wounds and prescribe medicine to sick animals. Every day, veterinarians come up with ways to improve the health of the animals, develop pharmaceuticals and vaccines, and devise ways of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans through products such as meat and milk.

Some veterinarians deal with food animals such as cattle and sheep; others are equine veterinarians who deal with horses while others have a specialty in food inspection and safety. There are also research veterinarians who carry out research on disease management. They collaborate with scientists and physicians to devise ways of preventing and treating diseases in both animals and humans. In addition, there are education veterinarians who offer advice to ranchers and other farmers on how to breed, care, and manage livestock and pets. Some work in the public health sector and regulatory medicine where they offer inspectorate services to animals and animal products. Those dealing with animals examine them for disease; offer treatment advice to the owners, and may order an animal quarantine in cases of outbreaks. Veterinarians dealing with animal products inspect abattoirs and processing plants, inspect both live and slaughtered animals for disease, and enforce sanitation regulations and food purity in the working areas.

Hackethal, Veronica. How to Become a Veterinary Assistant.  Inner Body, 2013. Web. 27 March 2014.

The author highlights the requirements for a veterinarian, working environment, and an overview of the veterinary career. The primary educational requirement for a veterinarian is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.) degree from an accredited veterinary medicine university or college. It is also a requirement that a veterinarian acquires a license to practice veterinary in the United States. It is also a requirement that a qualified veterinarian passes the North American Veterinary Licensing Exam (NAVLE) besides acquiring the university degree. Other desirable qualities include compassion towards humans and animals; adept decision-making skills so that he or she may choose the appropriate medication and treatment option; strong interpersonal and communication skills for effective interaction with colleagues, animal owners and other staff; good problem-solving skills, and manual dexterity. Veterinarians should also possess good laboratory practice and receive hands-on training on animal handling and post-operative care.

Kesler, Jesse. Veterinarian Job Description. Health Care Salary Online, 2006. Web. 27 March 2014.

The article gives an overview of the pros and cons of the working conditions of a veterinarian, and advancement in the veterinary career. A working area of a veterinarian is often a noisy, indoor place where veterinarians treat animals. It could be a hospital or clinic located nearby or far away in ranches and large farms. The working conditions vary depending on the environment, but mostly veterinarians work for long hours under pressure and stress from animal owners. They also suffer the risk of receiving bites starches, or kicks from frightened or distressed animals. Sometimes they have to drive long distances to reach the animals in their habitats and work under harsh outdoor weather conditions as they treat or perform surgery on animals in an unhygienic environment. Some may have to work extended hours into the night and over the weekends to meet unexpected appointments and respond to emergencies. However, the veterinarians working in research and educational settings enjoy hygienic, well-lit, and clean working conditions. They also have little contact with animals and mostly deal with people, sitting behind computers, in laboratories, and libraries carrying out research.

After substantive practice as a veterinarian, one may decide to specialize in a specific field like internal medicine or surgery. The requirements vary between the fields of specialization, but the main qualifying criteria are adequate experience in the field of specialization, passing entry exams and enrolling in further education such as residency programs or associate’s degree.


NJ Veterinary Medical Association. What is a Veterinarian? 2013. Web. 27 March 2014.

The author focuses on the nature of the work of a veterinarian, the local facilities found in a veterinary, and an overview of the veterinary career. Veterinary hospitals and clinics have advanced over the years with some fully equipped with state-of-the art facilities and advanced technology for diagnosis and treatment of animals. These include anesthetic equipment for surgical operations, lasers, ultrasound, and monitoring equipment. These equipment and facilities enhance diagnosis, treatment, and surgery of the animals, leading to safe surgery, post-operative care, and effective treatment and disease management. Thus, animals and pets can live long, comfortable lives.

Some veterinarians tend for aquarium, zoo, and laboratory animals where they prevent and treat diseases in animals such as fish. It is also the role of a veterinarian to prevent disease outbreak and the spread of diseases to humans, for example, rabies. Some specialize in performing autopsies on carcasses to identify the disease from which the animals succumbed. Epidemiology veterinarians help in controlling diseases transmitted through food products such as milk, and address the problem of antibiotic, pesticide, and herbicide residues in animals consumed as food.